Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Complete a 4 page essay on these two topics:

1) Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior

2) Schedules of Reinforcement

I am attaching a an outline to use and PLEASE USE THIS BOOK  chapter 4 and 5, here is the name and link. It must be in APA format.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Pierce, W. D. & Cheney, C. D. (2013). Behavior Analysis and Learning (5th ed.). New York,

NY: Psychology Press.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

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https://books.google.com/books?id=vwEoDwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pierce,+W.+D.+%26+Cheney,+C.+D.+(2013).+Behavior+Analysis+and+Learning+(5th+ed.).+New+York,++NY:+Psychology+Press.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirkLmmt4ffAhXimOAKHUDOC8YQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q&f=false Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Synopsis:

Chapter 4 begins the study of operant conditioning. Operants are responses that operate on the environment to produce changes or effects and, as a result, have a changed (increased or decreased) probability of occurrence. All of the forms of behavior (topographies) that produce a similar change in the environment are members of an operant class. In contrast to respondent behavior—which is elicited—operant behavior is emitted, in the sense that it occurs without being elicited or caused by a stimulus preceding it. A stimulus that precedes an operant behavior and sets the occasion for the behavior is called a discriminative stimulus, or SD. A contingency of reinforcement defines the relationship between the discriminative stimulus, operant class, and the consequences that follow the behavior. Neuroscientists working with drosophila have identified that operant learning involves both behavior-consequence learning (BCL)and stimulus-relation learning (SRL) and that selection by consequences can occur at the level of the neuron. Behavior analysts study four basicoperant contingencies: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment PaperWhile some psychologists have argued that the use of reinforcement reduces intrinsic motivation, behavior analysts have demonstrated that reinforcement increases motivation and creativity when delivered contingent on mastery (improved performance) or on the occurrence of novel response patterns. New operants can be trained by reinforcement ofresponse variations that successively approximate the target behavior or final performance. Studies of developing songbirds showthat shapingof the specie’s typical songinvolves defined neural pathways. Withholding the reinforcement that maintains a response—extinction—results in a decrease in the rate of response. Extinction also causes a number of additional changes in behavior, including the extinction burst, operant variability, forceful responses, and emotional responses. Properly used, extinction can be a useful way to eliminate problem behaviors, such as tantrums in children. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Study Questions:

  1. Identify three behaviors that could all belong to the operant class of getting someone’s attention.
  2. What does it mean that a discriminative stimulus sets the occasion for a behavior?
  3. What is “chunking” with regards to habits?
  4. Describe the implications of Mendoza and colleagues’ (2014) findings when flies with a mutation in the dFoxP gene and flies with reduced dFoxP gene expression were tested for BCL and SRL using the yaw-torque method. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  5. Frank’s dog frequently jumped on the couch until Frank began turning his back and not talking to the dog whenever it jumped on the couch. What type of operant contingency is Frank using to train his dog? Explain your answer.
  6. Under what conditions did Cameron and colleagues (2001) find that rewards negatively impact intrinsic motivation?
  7. Imagine that your roommate spends 45 minutes a day playing video games, 30 minutes cleaning the apartment, and 15 minutes reading a novel or other non-school book. With this information, how would you use the Premack principle to increase the time your roommate spends cleaning the apartment? Explain why this contingency would work.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  8. How does Timberlake and Allison’s (1974) equilibrium analysis differ from Premack’s views of reinforcement?
  9. What did researchers do to reinforce neurons firing? How did they rule out the alternative explanation that increased activity was just due to adding the drug?
  10. Identify and define what Skinner believed to be the basic datum (or measure) for operant analysis.
  11. What physiological changes does food deprivation produce in animals and how does this increase the effectiveness of food as reinforcement? Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  12. Explain how shaping takes advantage of response variability in an animal’s existing repertoire to produce new forms of behavior.
  13. Describe how the “song” of developing song birds is shaped during the “sensorimotor learning” phase.
  14. Explain what the cumulative record shown below tells us about the rate of a rat’s lever pressing over a 60-s period.

Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

  1. How are both Barry Schwartz’s argument that reinforcement produces behavioral inflexibility and Allen Neuringer’s argument that reinforcement can produce behavioral variability both correct?
  2. How could putting behavior on extinction help with shaping a novel response?
  3. What is the partial reinforcement effect (PRE)? Provide two possible explanations for the PRE.
  4. What is spontaneous recovery?
  5. What does the post-extinction effect of renewal suggest about the high rate of relapse after treatment in a residential drug treatment program?
  6. How are discriminative extinction and forgetting different? Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Study Questions (Answers):

  1. Any behavior that has resulted in someone looking at you.Examples include: raising your hand, calling the person’s name, throwing something at them, and tapping them on the shoulder.
  2. The probability of engaging in the behavior increases in the presence of the SD.
  3. The brain pattern of high activity before a cue or signal, low brain activity during the routine associated with the cue, and high neural activity at the reward. “Chunking” is indicative of an automatic behavioral routine orhabit at the neural level. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  4. Both mutation and gene expression research strategies yielded essentially the same results: dFoxPis necessary for BCL but not for SRL, suggesting that operant contingencies involve two distinct types of learning (BCL and SRL) at a neurobiological level. The findings also lend support to the hypothesis that BCL, as regulated by the FoxP gene, may be one of the evolutionary ancestral capacities underlying the evolution of FoxP2 and human language.
  5. Frank is using positive punishment. He removes his attention and talking to the dog when it engages in the behavior (jumping on the couch) and the rate of the response decreased as a result of the training procedure.
  6. Rewards decrease intrinsic motivation when they are loosely tied to performance—when people are rewarded for just “showing up.”  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  7. The Premack principlesays that providing contingent access to a higher-frequency behavior will function as a reinforcement for a lower-frequency behavior. Making access to playing the video game for 30 minutes per day contingent on cleaning for 15 minutes per day would act as reinforcement for cleaning.
  8. Equilibrium analysis states that when a contingency is set between an instrumental response and a contingent response, equilibrium is disturbed—creating response deprivation. The organism engages in more of the instrumental response to restore the equilibrium. Premack’s views did not take into regard equilibrium, just the relative frequency of the behaviors.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  9. Following bursts of firings in the neuron (calcium bursts, L-type Ca2+), a microburst of dopamine was applied to the cell for 50 milliseconds. To show that it is the contingency and not just added dopamine that increased firing, noncontingent dopamine was delivered and the rate of firing observed. Firing of the neuron only increased when the dopamine was contingent on calcium bursts.
  10. Skinner argued that the rate of response—the number of times an operant occurs in a defined unit of time—should be the basic datum for behavior analysis. Operant rate is indicative of the probability of response, the likelihood that the response would occur again in a similar situation.
  11. At the physiological level, loss of body weight (food deprivation) activates hormones related to energy homeostasis, involving insulin, leptin, and ghrelin. Neuroendocrine research shows that variation in these hormones increase (or decrease) food-reinforced behavior and modulate neurotransmitters controlling the endogenous reward circuitry, especially the midbrain dopamine (DA) and opiodergic systems.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  12. Behavior variability refers to the animal’s tendency to naturally emit variations in response form in a given situation. The process of shaping occurs as reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations to the final performance or target behavior. The trainer watches for naturally occurring variation in the behavior and selects by reinforcement a response form that is closer to the target behavior, which makes the new response form more likely. Over time, the response forms move closer and closer to the target behavior until the target behavior is emitted and reinforced, the first definable response.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  13. During the “sensorimotor learning” phase, immature birdsong is shaped toward the adult song (final performance) by hearing how closely its vocal responses correspond with those of adult birds (auditory feedback). Using self-produced feedback from singing, the youngster’s melody is fine-tuned toward an adult “crystallized” song with only small variations from one rendition to the next.
  14. At first the rat is responding at a moderate rate, until the moment ofreinforcement (downward dip of the pen). After the reinforcement, the rat stops responding for a period (flat line), then begins responding at a higher rate (indicated by the steeper slope) than before the first presentation of reinforcement. After the second point of reinforcement, the rat stops responding for an even longer period.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  15. Response inflexibility and response variability are controlled by the contingency of reinforcement. If the contingencies of reinforcement support stereotyped behavior, the animal shows a rigid sequence of responses. On the other hand, contingencies of variability may generate novel, even creative, sequences of behavior if these patterns have resulted in reinforcement.
  16. During extinction, operant behavior becomes increasingly variable (operant variability). This increased variability would be beneficial to a trainer because it allows for selection by reinforcement of responses closer to target behavior or reinforcement by successive approximationto the final performance.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  17. The partial reinforcement effect is the finding that behavior on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement is more resistant to extinction than behavior reinforced every time it occurs (continuous reinforcement; CRF). One explanation for the PRE is that it is easier to discriminate extinction on a CRF than on intermittent reinforcement. A second explanation is that it takes more responses to come in contact with the contingencies of extinction on an intermittent schedule than on a CRF schedule.
  18. Spontaneous recovery occurs after a session of extinction in which the rate of response was close to the operant level; the next session of extinction, the animal begins by responding above operant levelwhen it is placed in the operant chamber. This high rate responding at the beginning of a session following extinction is called spontaneous recovery.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  19. Renewal is the recovery of responding when the animal is removed from the extinction context. Extinction of drug use in a treatment setting (extinction context) may inadvertently exacerbate renewal of use when the person returns to the home environment (original context for reinforcement of drug use). Even when the drug user makes dramatic changes in lifestyle like changing city, friends, and work, removal from the extinction context (therapeutic setting) could generate continuation of drug use.
  20. Discriminative extinction and forgetting are procedurally different. In discriminative extinction a previously reinforced discriminative response no longer produces reinforcement. The opportunity to emit the discriminative operant remains available during extinction. Forgetting is said to occur after the mere passage of time. During forgetting, there typically isno opportunity to emit the behavior and variables related to the passage of time and ageing would affect performance on a discrimination test. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Essay Questions (Student):

  1. Imagine that you are asked to use shaping principles to train arat tolever press forreinforcement arranged by presentation of a food magazine in an operant chamber.Explain how you would accomplish this training;include reference to any procedures used before placing the rat in the chamber, the initial training, andat least three sequential steps in the shaping process. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

ANS: Prior to placing the rat in the chamber, the animal would be food deprived to 85% of its free-feeding weight (the student could go into more detail about how this is done, but that is not necessary). Once the rat was placed in the chamber, magazine training would be arranged to habituate the animal to the sound of the feeder. That is, the food magazine would be activated periodically, making an audible click that would eventually reduce aversive effects of the feeder. Subsequently, the animal would eat from the feeder and the click would signal food reinforcement—establishing the sound of the magazine as conditioned reinforcement for quickly approaching the feeder. Once the rat is magazine trained, the following shaping steps or approximations to the final performance would be used (Figure 4.7; any three of the steps are acceptable, in the correct order):  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

  • Standing near the lever reinforced
  • Facing lever reinforced
  • Moving head toward lever reinforced
  • Touching lever with parts of body (nose) reinforced
  • Touching lever with paws reinforced
  • Touching lever with specified (right) paw reinforced
  • Partially depressing lever with right paw reinforced
  • Raising and depressing lever with right paw reinforced
  • Raising and depressing lever completely with right paw reinforced.

 

 

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Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

  1. Describe the four behavioral effects that typically occur during extinction.

ANS:Extinction burstoccurs when extinction is started following a period of reinforcement; operant behavior tends to increase at first.Operant variabilityoccurs when the topography of response becomes increasingly variable as extinction progresses.Force of response during extinctionshows a greater range, including responses that are more forceful than observed when reinforcement is present.Emotional responsesincrease during extinction, as organisms show a variety of elicited responses, such as wing flapping, biting the lever, and self-injurious behavior.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Essay Questions (Instructor):

  1. What is a contingency of reinforcement? In your answer, define the three major components of a contingency and the four basic contingencies.

ANS:A contingency of reinforcement defines the relationship among the events that set the occasion for behavior, the operant class, and the functional consequences (reinforcement) that follow operant behavior. Discriminative stimuli set the occasion for the behavior, regulating behavior based on a history of reinforcement in their presence. Reinforcement ofoperant behavior establishes the probability of response in the presence of the discriminative stimulus. The operant class includes all response topographies that produce reinforcement. Functional analysis of the contingencies of reinforcement includes reference to the way behavior changes the environment and how those changes feedback tocontrol subsequent operant behavior. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

The four basic contingencies are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Reinforcement always increases the rate of the response andpunishment decreases it. Positive reinforcement involves adding an event or stimulusif a response occurs, and the rate of response increases. Negative reinforcement involves withdrawing an event if the response occurs and the rate of response increases.

  1. Compare and contrast the following behavior phenomenon: (1) spontaneous recovery, (2) reinstatement, and (3) renewal. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

ANS: All three of these behavioral phenomena are instances of the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished operant response. In the case of spontaneous recovery(operant procedure), after extinction sessions reduce the rate of response to near operant level and a period of time is spent in a non-extinction setting, the rate response initially recoversto high levelswhen the organism is placedagain in the extinction context. In reinstatement, the extinguished operant returns to a high rate after the opportunity to respond is removed, response-independent reinforcement is delivered, and the opportunity to respond is made available again. Renewal involves the recovery of responding when the organism is removed from the extinction context, whichpresumably eliminates the S-deltas signaling extinction of the operant response.   Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Videos:

  • F. Skinner discussing operant conditioning

  • Big Bang Theory—Negative reinforcement vs. positive punishment

  • Allen Neuringer—Variability of the operant

  • An interview with Allen Neuringer

  • F. Skinner shaping a pigeon to turn Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

  • Kennon Lattal—Facets of operant extinction

  • Extinction burst defined—Jargon of the Day

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AJHPBCn5gXw  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper

Study Tips:

  • The stimuli that occur before a behavior function differently in respondent and operant conditioning. Respondent behavior is elicited—triggered—by the conditioned or unconditioned stimulus. In operant behavior, the discriminative stimulus changes the probability of the behavior by setting the occasion for reinforcement.
  • Negative reinforcement and positive punishment are often mistakenly confused. Negative reinforcement increases the rate of an operant response by removing a stimulus from the environment. Positive punishment decreases the rate of an operant response by adding a stimulus to the environment.
  • Behavioral variability is a basic component of all responses. Shaping is a powerful procedure for selection of responses based on response variability. The procedure involves selection of responses that come closer and closer to the target performance, or successive approximation to the final performance. Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper
  • Intrinsic motivation is damaged by noncontingent reinforcement and by providing reinforcement for low effort responding. When reinforcement iscontingent and based on mastery of the performance, intrinsic motivation increases.
  • Extinction is a procedure used in both respondent and operant behavior. For respondent behavior, extinction involves withholding the unconditioned stimulus but continuing to present the conditioned stimulus. For operant behavior, extinction involves withholding reinforcementfor a previously reinforced operant.  Reinforcement and Extinction of Operant Behavior Assignment Paper