Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

 

Management, unlike other subjects such as economics, philosophy, political science is of a recent origin and hence, a relatively new subject. Being an evolving concept (George 1972), it is still in its developing stage. So far as the meaning of management is concerned, like other socio-economic terms, it has also been defined differently by different authorities.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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As a result, there is no single definition on the term but many. We do not have unified views on what management is precisely. The following are a few of the important definitions of the term ‘management’. Mary Parker Follett views, “Management is the art of getting things done through people (Follett 1941).”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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According to Henri Fayol (1949) who is considered the father of principles of administrative management, “To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate, and to control.”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

In the opinion of Fredrick Winslow Taylor (1947), “Management is knowing exactly what you want men to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.”

According to George R. Terry (1953), “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling performance to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Peter F. Drucker opines, “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business, manages manager and manages workers and work (Drucker 1970).”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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Having gone through the above definitions of management, now it can be simply defined as management is getting things done along with others/ subordinates. In other words, it is a process of various functions like planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the business operations in such a manner as to achieve the objectives set by the business firm. It consists of all activities beginning from business planning to its actual survival.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Characteristics of Management:
The salient characteristics of management that flow from above definitions are:

1. Management is a purposeful activity.

2. It is getting things done through and with others in a desired manner.

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3. It concerns with the efforts of people working in the enterprise.

4. It relates to decision-making.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

5. It is a process consisting of various functions such as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

6. Management is both the science and art. It is science because it has developed certain principles and laws. At the same time, it is an art also because it is concerned with the application of knowledge or principles for the solutions of the organizational problems.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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7. It is a fast developing profession.

8. It deals with decision and control of business activities.

9. Management as an evolving concept is dynamic in nature which adapts itself to changing business conditions.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

This paper is about Chipotle Mexican Grill restaurant. In this paper, discussions have been made about the Key Areas of Chipotle’s code of conduct that are of major importance for their business. In addition, key steps of Chipotle for implementing the code of conduct for ensuring employees to follow the code of conduct. Moreover, key ways of Chipotle to engage in socially responsive activities have also been included as a discussion in this paper.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.
Key Areas of Chipotle’s Code of Conduct
Morals and social obligation are imperative ranges inside Chipotle Mexican Grill’s business. Both areas have an …show more content…
It is a manual for moral and ethical behavior. All staff parts at Chipotle are relied upon to satisfy the mission of the organization while conforming to the implicit rules and utilizing moral conduct. Chipotle’s opening articulation implements the imperativeness of honesty and agreeability while workers are utilized with the organization, and is a reasonable and brief desire that representatives can comprehend and consent to.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.
An alternate essential area in Chipotle’s code of conduct is the Statement of Integrity; which is as takes after, Chipotle is an organization focused around respectability. Honesty is about being genuine and being fair. It means making the best decision actually when nobody is viewing. These qualities saturate the way we do, and don’t do, business. Chipotle representatives are relied upon to utilize great judgment and follow high moral guidelines. While being utilized with the organization, representatives ought to dependably act absolutely for the long haul profit of the business and clients. It is vital for Chipotle to have a segment auditing their uprightness articulation in light of the fact that that is a standout amongst the most essential parts of their brand.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Successful organizations have strong leaders and managers that develop, support and encourage employee longevity within a company. There is a significant difference between leadership and management however both skills have to be used collectively and both are important to a profitable organization.Management Concepts Assignment Papers. Leadership is a notion of communicating an organization’s vision, whereas management is more of the implementation of the organization’s vision. The manager typically carries out the responsibilities written by the organization and has a good team underneath them to carry out the duties and meet the goals. Most companies have a mission statement that mirrors and supports a company’s vision. When referring leadership and management, the two …show more content… Management Concepts Assignment Papers.
According to Hersey and Blanchard (1998), there are three areas required for effective leadership. Technical skills, which includes clinical expertise and knowledge as it pertains to nursing. Secondly, human skills, which is the ability and judgment to work with people in leadership roles. And lastly, conceptual skills which is the ability to understand the complexities of overall organization and figure out how and where one’s own strengths of management fits into the overall organization (Cherry, Jacob 2011). Leadership is unique compared to any other role because of its responsibility for people. Good leaders are followed merely because they have gained people’s trust and respect.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Management:
Management involves the tactical aspect of day to day functions and who keeps control of the work environment to make sure the organization is moving forward and in the same direction of the company’s vision. Managers are faced with many responsibilities each day, one of which is managing people. The goal of a successful manager is to achieve the highest productivity of the organization by way of the people he/she manages. A manager is more of a problem solver and takes care of work areas relating to people management, time management, decision making etc.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

According to Lewin (1951) and White & Lippit (1960), there are three prevalent management behavior styles: Authoritarian, democratic and laissez-fare (Cherry,
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Leadership Theories Of Leadership And Management
2944 Words | 12 Pages
Leadership Phenomenon Dierdra M. Coleman Managerial Leadership Dr. Tyron A. Woodard October 12 2012 Leadership Phenomenon To truly understand leadership and management a person has to understand what is the core of management.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

In this essay we will discuss about ‘Management’. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Management’ especially written for school and college students.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Essay on Management
Essay Contents:

Essay on the Definition of Management
Essay on the Concept of Management
Essay on the Responsibilities and Objectives of Management
Essay on the Levels of Management
Essay on the Functions of Management
1. Essay on the Definition of Management:
There is no single definition of management. Management can be styled as “management” i.e., manage men tactfully. The term management can be and often is used in several different ways.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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According to Henry Fayol, the father of principles of management, “To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command and to control”.

According to FW Taylor, “Management is knowing exactly what you want men to do and then seeing that they do in the best and cheapest way”

Mary Parker defines management as “Art of getting things done through people”.

Peter Drucker defines management as “A multi-purpose organ that manages a business and manages manager and manages workers and work”.

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John F Mee defines management as “the art of securing maximum results with a minimum effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both the employers and employee and give the public the best possible service”.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Richard L. Daft defines management as “the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources.”

Management is “the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims”.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Having gone through above definitions of management, now it can be defined as getting things done through others/subordinates. In other words it is a process of various functions like planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business operations in such a manner so as to achieve the objectives set by the organization.

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Management: Science or Arts:

Management is both science and arts. Though it is not a perfect art as music or painting. Similarly, it is not a perfect science as physical or chemical science.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Art is bringing about of desired result through application of skill. The management evolves for the application to a specific situation. Intuition and creativity are often the key ingredients of successful managers.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Science, on the other hand, is a systematic body of knowledge acquired by making through observations, experiments and intelligence, which may be verified by researchers. Many theories of management have evolved through experimentation and the results are well structured. Examples are leadership and motivation theory. Many areas of operations management such as forecasting, production planning and control, inventory management, etc., are more towards science. Thus, management is both science and arts. Generally, it is the situation which determines the orientation towards science or art.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

2. Essay on the Concept of Management:
The concept of management is not fixed. It has changed according to time and circumstances. The concept of management has been used in integration and authority etc. Different authors on management have given different concepts of management.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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The main concepts of management are as follows:

(i) Functional Concept.

(ii) ‘Getting Things Done Through Others’ Concept.

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(iii) Leadership and Decision-making Concept.

(iv) Productivity Concept.

(v) Universality Concept.

(i) Functional Concept:
According to this concept ‘management is what a manager does’. The main followers of this concept are Louis Allen, George R. Terry, Henry Fayol, E.F.L. Brech, James L. Lundy, Koontz and O. Donnel, G.E Milward, mcfarland etc.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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The functional concept as given by some of the authors is given below:

Louis Allen, “Management is what a manager does.”

James L. Lundy, “Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the effort of others towards a specific objective. Management is what management does. It is the task of planning, executing and controlling.”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

George R. Terry, “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, activating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objective by the use of human beings and other resources.”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

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Howard M. Carlisle, “Management is defined as the process by which the elements of a group are integrated, coordinated and/or utilized so as to effectively and efficiently achieve organizational objectives.”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast, and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.”

(ii) ‘Getting Things Done through Others’ Concept:
According to this concept, ‘Management is the art of getting things done through others’. It is very narrow and traditional concept of management. The followers of this concept are Koontz and O Donnell, Mooney and Railey, Lawrence A. Appley, S. George, Mary Parker Follet etc. Under this concept, the workers are treated as a factor of production only and the work of the manager is confined to taking work from the workers. He need not do any work himself. Modern management experts do not agree with this concept of management.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Some of these authors have explained this concept in the following words:

Mary Parker Follet, “Management is the art of getting things done through others.”

Harold Koontz, “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups.” It is the art of creating and environment in which people can perform as individuals and yet cooperate towards attaining of group goals.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

J.D. Mooney and A.C. Railey, “Management is the art of directing and inspiring people.”

(iii) Leadership and Decision-Making Concept:
According to this concept, “management is an art and science of decision­-making and leadership.” Most of the time managers are busy in taking decisions. Achievement of objectives depends on the quality of decisions. Similarly, production and productivity both can be increased by efficient leadership only. Leadership provides efficiency, coordination and continuity in an organization.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Leadership and decision-making concept as given by some authors is given below:

Donald J. Clough, “Management is the art and science of decision-making and leadership”.

Ralph, C. Davix, “Management is the function of executive leadership anywhere.”

Association of Mechanical Engineers, U.S.A., “Management is the art and science of preparing, organizing and directing human efforts applied to control the forces and utilize the materials of nature for the benefit to man”.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

F.W. Taylor, “Management implies substitution of exact scientific investigation and knowledge for the old individual judgment or opinion, in all matters in the establishment.”

(iv) Productivity Concept:
According to this concept, “management is an art of increasing productivity.” Economists treat management as an important factor of production. According to them, “Management is also a factor of production like land, labor, capital and enterprise.” The main followers of this concept of management are John F. Mee, Marry Cushing Niles, F. W. Taylor etc.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

The productivity concept, as given by the authors is given below:

Jon, F. Mee, “Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum prosperity with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service.”

F. W. Taylor, “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do in the best and cheapest way.”

Marry Cushing Niles, “Good management achieves a social objective with the best use of human and material energy and time and with satisfaction of the participants and the public.”Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

(v) Universality Concept:
According to this concept, “Management is universal”. Management is universal in the sense that it is applicable anywhere whether social, religious or business and industrial. The followers of this concept are Henry Fayol, Lawrence A. Appley, F.W. Taylor, Theo Haimann etc.

According to Henry Fayol, “Management is a universal activity which is equally applicable in all types of organization whether social, religious or business and industrial”.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Megginson, “Management is management, whether it is in Lisbon, or in London or in Los Angeles.”

Theo Haimann, “Management principles are universal. It may be applied to any kind of enterprises, where the human efforts are coordinated.”

3. Essay on the Responsibilities and Objectives of Management:
Management has responsibilities to shareholders, employees, customers and society at large.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

(i) To shareholders, management has the traditional responsibility of protection of investment plus the earning of a return on that investment in the long run.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

(ii) To employees, management must strive to provide steady, challenging and rewarding opportunities, safe working conditions, and providing for health and other benefits through the working years and even after retirement.

(iii) To customers, management must provide a high quality product at a competitive price and render satisfactory service as required.

(iv) To the Society at large, management has the responsibility of always being a good citizen, taking an interest in the affairs of the general public, complying with the spirit as well as letter of law regarding environmental pollution and conservation.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Management Objectives:
There are basically three management objectives:

i. One objective is ensuring organizational goals and targets are met with least cost and minimum waste.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

ii. The second objective is looking after health and welfare, and safety of staff.

iii. The third objective is protecting the machinery and resources of the organization, including the human resources.

4. Essay on the Levels of Management:
An organization may have different levels of management. the number of levels of management in a particular organization depends on the size of the organization, market value and nature of production based on quality as well as quantity.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

A large organization needs different levels of management which has the responsibility to make all the workers get motivated, get organized in order to get the job done within the certain time period and bring a mutual understanding among the workers in different levels of the organization.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

The management should provide a clear view about the nature of the work in that particular level, where all the objectives to be accomplished, goals to be achieved. But in order to achieve greater efficiency and maximum productivity, the levels present in the organization should be kept at minimum.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

If there are many levels in the organization the cost spend for planning, resources needed for that level will be increased, which might have a great impact on the profit margin of the organization. It might also create problems in communication channels between different personnel of different levels, which would be very difficult to control and coordinate.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

According to the experts there are three different levels of management (Refer Fig. 1.1):

1. Top Level Management.

2. Middle Level Management.

3. Lower Level Management.

Levels of Management

(i) Top Level Management:
Top level management refers to those who occupy functional positions in an enterprise such as board of directors, managing directors and other key officers who are responsible for smooth and systematic operations of the enterprise.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Top management does not directly execute work. Some of the important functions of top level management are:

a. Setting key objectives, policies and identifying factors essential for the development of the organization.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

b. Efficient accomplishment of goals in the organization.

c. Making appointments to the top position in the enterprise such as managers, department heads etc.

d. Reviewing the work of different personnel’s in all levels.

e. Providing overall leadership to the organization.

(ii) Middle Level Management:
Middle level management deals with task of implementing the policies and plans formulated by the top level. It comprises of departmental heads and other executive officers who will lead the group of workers to the planned targets and provide them with necessary resources in order to get the job done.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

This group is responsible for the execution and interpretation of policies throughout the organization and for the successful operations assigned to the division or departments. In this level the managers have to plan the operations, issue instructions laid by the top management, collect the resources required and control the work of the men.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Functions to be performed by the middle level management are:

a. Follow the rules and policies formulated by the top management.

b. Motivating personnel for higher productivity and to reward them properly.

c. Recruitment and selection of operative and staff.

d. Collecting detailed analysis report of the department and the personnel’s.

e. Mutual understanding with other departments in the organization.

f. Recommendations to top management for better execution of plans and policies.

(iii) Lower or Operating Level Management:
Operating level management is the lowest level in the organization. It consists of foreman, supervisors, daily labourers etc. Their authority and responsibility in the organization is much less as compared to other workers. They have to follow the rules and guidelines made out by the higher authorities of the enterprise.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

The importance of the functions in this level cannot be overlooked. The plan developed by the top level management will fail if the workers in the lower level do not fully realize the work allotted to them and the nature of their work. The quality and quantity of the work done will depend upon the performances of the workers in this level i.e., how hard they work to attain their goals.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Functions to be performed by the lower level management are:

a. Maintaining standards of the quality of the manufactured product.

b. Assigning duties to the workers as per plan and schedules given by the top and middle level management.

c. They are also responsible for maintaining respect and discipline among themselves.

d. To increase the spirit of work among the workers.

5. Essay on the Functions of Management:
Management is a process of getting things done through others. It is a dynamic process consisting of several elements or activities. These activities or elements, which every manager has to perform, are known as functions of management. Various management scholars studies different organizations at different times and identified separate functions of management.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

These are:

(i) Planning

(ii) Organizing

(iii) Staffing

(iv) Directing

(v) Controlling

(vi) Co-Ordination

Although co-ordination is not generally regarded as one of the basic management functions, it is extremely important for the success of any organization.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

(i) Planning:
Often referred to as the “first” function of management, planning lays the groundwork for all other functions of management. Planning function determines the objectives to be achieved and the course of action to be followed to achieve them. It involves deciding in advance what to do, when to do it, where to do it, how to do it and who is to do it and how the results are to be evaluated. Thus, planning is the systematic thinking about the ways and the means for the accomplishment of predetermined objectives.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Planning is a continuous process and this function is performed at all levels of management. Top managers are involved in strategic planning that sets board, long-range goals for an organization. These goals become the basis for short-range, annual operational planning; during which top and middle managers determine specific departmental objectives that will help the organization makes progress toward the broader, long-range goals.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Planning is a fundamental function of management and all the other functions of management are greatly influenced by planning process. Planning is prerequisite of doing anything. Planning requires decision making i.e., choosing future courses of action from among alternatives. Plans range from overall purposes and objectives to the most detailed actions to be taken. No real plan exists until a decision i.e. a commitment of human and material resources has been made.

(ii) Organizing:
The second function of the management is getting organized. According to Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful to its functioning i.e. men, materials, machines and money”. Thus, organizing is an important managerial function by which management brings together all the resources for the achievement of objectives of the organization.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Management must organize all its resources well before in hand to put into practice the course of action to decide that has been planned in the base function. Organizing involves the assignment of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments, and the allocation of resources to departments. Managers must bring together individuals and tasks to make effective use of people and resources.

Organization has also been defied as the process of establishing relationships among the members of the enterprise. The relationships are created in terms of authority and responsibility. Each member in the organization is assigned a specific responsibility or duty to perform and is granted the corresponding authority to perform his duty. Thus, organization involves identification and grouping the activities to be performed and dividing them among the individuals and creating authority and responsibility relationships among them.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Organization as a function of management involves the following steps:

a. Determination of activities of the organization.

b. Classification of activities into groups.

c. Assignment of these groups of activities to individuals.

d. Delegation of authority and fixing of responsibility for carrying out such assigned duties.

e. Co-ordination of these activities throughout the organization.

(iii) Staffing:
Organization function of management helps the executives to establish positions and lay down their functional relations to each other. However, it is through staffing function that different positions in the organizational structure are kept manned.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Staffing function is devoted to recruitment, selection, training, placement, compensating, promotion and demotion and finally the retirement of an employee. Thus, staffing is a process of managing the organization and keeping it manned. The sole aim of staffing is to take right person for the right job. It needs manpower planning, job analysis and such other staff functions.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Staffing is concerned with the following three things:

a. Determining manpower requirements i.e., manpower planning.

b. Laying down qualifications for the various jobs to be done i.e. job specification.

c. Recruitment, selection and training of people to perform these jobs effectively and efficiently.

(iv) Directing:
Directing is another of the basic function within the management process. Directing is the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. Managers must be able to make employees participate in achieving an organization’s goals. The directing process helps the organization move toward goal attainment.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

As the process of management is concerned with getting work done through and with people, they require continuous encouragement to work effectively. Directing imparts instructions to persons, communicates orders, rules and decisions, motivates, provides leadership and guidance, supervises their work and behaviour, and inspires them towards improved performance.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Directing function consists of three sub-functions:

(a) Leadership:

Leadership is the process of influencing and directing people towards the accomplishment of goal or objective. As leaders, managers have not only to show the way but also to lead the group towards it.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

(b) Motivation:

Motivation means inspiring the subordinates with zeal to do work for the achievement of organizational goals. Highly motivated people perform better than unmotivated people.

(c) Communication:

It is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. For a manager to be successful, he must develop an effective system of communication so that he may issue instructions; receive the reactions of the subordinates and guide and motivate them.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

(v) Controlling:
Planning, organizing, staffing and directing must be monitored to maintain their efficiency and effectiveness. Thus controlling, the last of the five functions of management, is concerned with the act of monitoring each of these functions to evaluate the organizational performance towards meeting goals and objectives. Controlling is the final phase of the management process.

Controlling means monitoring employee’s activities, determining whether the organization is on target toward its goals, and making correction as necessary. Controlling is a function of every manager both at lower and upper level since all have responsibility to execution of plans. Controlling ensures that, through effective directing, what has been planned and organized to take place has in fact taken place.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

The control is a measuring and corrective device. It measures performance against goals and plans. Controlling is an on-going process, whereas planning guides the management in the timely use of resources to accomplish specific goals. The control ensures the effective planning.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Controlling function involves the following activities:

a. Establishing standards of accountability.

b. Measurement of work in progress.

c. Interpretation of results.

d. Taking corrective actions.

(vi) Co-Ordination:
Some considers co-ordination as a separate function of management while many others call it as “essence of manager-ship”. The process of co-ordination involves synchronizing individual actions with the goals of the enterprise. In fact, every managerial function represents an exercise in co-ordination.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.

Thus, planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, all help the managers to achieve proper co-ordination. Today, organizations have grown in size and in character. A large number of people work there in. So co-ordination has become very necessary.Management Concepts Assignment Papers.