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The Attack On Constantinople By The Fourth Crusade

In the old ages 1203 and 1204, the Fourth Crusade was diverted from its intended finish of Egypt, foremost to the Christian metropolis of Zara and so to the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. Both metropoliss were looted and the Crusaders killed fellow Christians. For centuries, this episode has been considered one of history 's greatest bloopers ; the bagging and coup d'etat of one of the largest Christian metropoliss on Earth by an ground forces purportedly dedicated to stomping out the enemies of Christianity. The inclination of recent scholarship sing the Fourth Crusade has been either to fault or support an person, e.g. Boniface of Montferrat, or a cabal of the Crusader forces, e.g. the Venetians, for the recreation that resulted in the sack of Constantinople. Important historiographers as Alfred Andrea and Ilona Motsiff, Joseph Gill, Donald E. Queller and Gerald W. Day, Thomas Madden, Michael Angold and Jonathan Harris have all discussed several different readings of the recreation of the Fourth Crusade every bit good as who is to fault for this.

Four chief primary beginnings have been studied over and over once more in order for an accurate account to be given. First, `` The Deeds of Innocent III '' translated and completed by James M. Powell in 2004. The 2nd primary beginning is written in 1215 by Gunther, a monastic at the monastery of Pairs, in defence of the actions of his archimandrite Martin who accompanied the ground forcess of the Fourth Crusade. The 3rd major primary beginning is Geoffrey de Villehardouin 's narrative `` On the Conquest of Constantinople '' , which has two features: ( a ) defensive attitude and ( B ) violent anger towards Crusaders. The 4th primary beginning is besides a narrative by Robert of Clari ; `` La Conquete de Constantinople. '' Robert of Clari was a lower degree knight and participant and that makes Robert 's work potentially valuable, and rare. With both the cognition of the historical facts around the Fourth Crusade - the recreation to Zara and its gaining control on the 24th of November 1202 and Constantinople 's gaining control on 12th April 1204 - and the survey of primary beginnings, it is possible to get down exemplifying the importance of the motivations that finally resulted in deviating the Campaign to the capital of Byzantium.

Boniface, Marquis of Montferrat and secular caput of the Crusade, seems the best figure to get down with non merely because of his place of power over the other secular leaders, but besides because of his hostility towards Constantinople, which occurred because Boniface and his brother were closely involved in personal businesss in Constantinople prior to the Fourth Crusade. While analyzing Boniface 's function in the recreation of the Crusade cogent evidence can be found that before the Crusade of all time had any fiscal trouble with the Venetians the elected caput of the endeavor was already in favor of the cause of immature Alexius. Furthermore, Boniface, even old to the exclusion of his military personnels at Zara, was already cognizant that the Pope was against any recreation of his Campaign that would ensue in the gore of fellow Christians. Boniface is besides guilty for converting his fellow Lords, who were on the Crusade for their ain redemption, to back up him on the besieging of Constantinople ; a major Christian metropolis. Therefore, as Chris Brayer argues: `` Boniface acknowledged that Innocent III 's place negates any possibility that his purpose in taking the Cross was inspired by faith, since he proceeded to deviate the Crusade anyway. Besides, his support of the cause of Alexius in the face of that same place indicates that his subterranean motivations against Constantinople were surely paramount in his credence of the place as secular caput of the Crusade. '' Harmonizing to what has been mentioned so far Boniface of Montferrat had doubtless strong motivations for deviating the Fourth Crusade.

However, one should non merely fault Boniface, since the greedy Venetians and their Doge Enrico Dandolo besides had strong motivations in deviating the Crusade. Historians Queller and Day advert the long tradition of Venetians in helping old Crusades, an statement that `` culminates with the Doge and many of his topics taking the cross themselves. '' However, this statement proves to be uneffective, merely because - harmonizing to Andrea and Motsiff - Venetians refused to recognize the apostolic official emissary Peter Capuano as anything more than a simple churchman. Gill adds to the statement of Andrea and Motsiff, back uping that the Venetians destroyed the apostolic prohibition of exclusion, placed on them before Zara, and besides that they attempted to be absolved from the exclusion after the autumn of Constantinople. The Venetians ' motivations, merely like Boniface 's, had nil to make with faith or redemption since they knew that their onslaughts on Zara and Constantinople were done contrary to the Pope 's wants. Evidence clearly shows that `` the Venetians were utilizing deplorable conditions as a bargaining tool to deviate the reformers to Zara '' , if non to Constantinople.

Some bookmans are seeking to fault Pope Innocent III for the recreation of the Crusade to Constantinople. Evidence provided by all four primary beginnings mentioned in the beginning show no ground to believe that Pope Innocent III of all time wanted the Fourth Crusade to ensue in such a catastrophe. In malice of this, it can be argued that Pope Innocent III made some errors - prior and during the Crusade - that resulted in its recreation. During the assemblage at Venice, the Pope used military personnels already committed to shiping on the Crusade for apostolic warfare in Italy. Furthermore, he made errors such as pass oning with Emperor Alexius III, after the activities done by his nephew, Alexius IV, in France during the summer of 1201 and personally accepting a visit from Alexius IV every bit good. Justifiably, Alexius III was concerned that the Pope might assist his nephew to unchurch him ; a missive to Innocent was so written by Alexius III inquiring him to forestall the confederacy. Gill states that Innocent 's answer to the Emperor was `` reassuring '' . Andrea and Motsiff write: `` The apostolic missive was a really sly effort at blackmail. Innocent hoped to convert an evidently scared Alexius III was that his lone hope ballad in his subordinating the Grecian Church to the Roman pontificate and in fall ining the campaign against Islam. '' The consequence was that Innocent failed to advert to any of his letters to the Crusaders that Constantinople was non to be attacked for any ground. From Innocent 's side, this should be considered as an skip and non as direct engagement. On 20 June 1203, he wrote to the Reformers: `` Indeed, no affair what evil in this and other things the Emperor and those capable to his legal power have committed, it is non for you to go through judgement on their offenses ; you did non take on yourselves the symbol of the Cross to revenge this hurt, but instead the shame done to the Crucified to whose honor you have dedicated yourselves in a particular way… We want you to bear in head and We warn you non even venially to conflict the sense of our prohibition by which We forbade you under hurting of exclusion to try to occupy or harm lands belonging to Christians… '' Thus the Pope did non by any agencies wanted the recreation to Constantinople and was committed to the Crusaders ' journey to the Holy Land.

Finally, secular and spiritual leaders should be considered guilty in deviating the Campaign to Constantinople. Queller provides a transition that describes the idea of the leaders in favor of the recreation of Constantinople while reasoning with Simon de Montfort who was against it: `` The opposing party responded that they could carry through nil in Syria, for it could be recovered merely by traveling to Egypt or Greece. Simon, archimandrite of Loos, a follower of Baldwin of Flanders, seriously prayed the host to keep together and to accept the proposal of the minister plenipotentiary. His supplication and the influence of the greater work forces eventually brought approximately ( the proposal 's ) acceptance, although merely 12 of the main work forces would stick on their signatures to the convention. '' They in secret agreed with the Venetians to the jaunt to Zara and, disregarding the menaces of the Pope, sacked the metropolis. At Corfu, they attempted to convert an full ground forces to deviate to Constantinople and were evidently successful in making so at the behest of Boniface of Montferrat. An of import fact to reference is that Baldwin of Flanders, one of the original vocalists of the Treaty of Venice, became Emperor of Constantinople after the sack of the metropolis in 1204. These leaders are clearly guilty every bit far as it concerns the onslaughts against Zara and Constantinople, but it can non be entirely proved that it was their primary purpose and non merely an unfortunate series of events that led them to make so.

In decision, there are two facts that should be mentioned: ( a ) about everyone involved in the Fourth Crusade was in some manner to fault and ( B ) there were preexistent motivations to deviate the Crusade to Zara and Constantinople among cardinal leaders of the Fourth Crusade, such as Boniface of Montferrat and Doge Enrico Dandolo and his Venetians. Indeed, unlike many of their fellow Crusaders involved, these two figures ' actions against Constantinople have a logical account. Truth is that Boniface 's and the Venetians ' motivations seem to be the cardinal factor behind the recreation to Constantinople, but still non the premier one. Should the incrimination be assigned specifically to those two work forces? There are many other, internal and external, forces and factors one should see when inquiring who was to fault for the recreation of the Fourth Crusade. Some of those were knowing and others non so much. Why non fault those who had given such power to two work forces - Winfred and Enrico Dandolo - since they knew that they - each for their ain grounds - clearly had so much to derive by suppressing the Christian metropolis of Constantinople alternatively of the Holy Land? The unfortunate event of the sack of Constantinople in 1204 and the violent death of so many fellow Christians by the Crusaders has really complex forces involved in it.

The Sack of Constantinople Annals of Niketas Choniates ( 1204 )

The Byzantine Empire was one of the prima universe powers in the earl Middle Ages but by the clip of Crusades, the Byzantine Empire has lost its power and became vulnerable to the impact of foreign powers. Finally, the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople had proved to be unable to defy to Crusaders, who attacked the metropolis and looted it. In this respect, it is possible to mention to Choniates, whose Sack of Constantinople Annals reveals the effects of the Crusades on Constantinople and the attitude of the Emperor and the local population to Crusaders. In fact, Choniates uses simple and likely deliberately simple linguistic communication to convey his attitude to the reformers.

The writer depicts them as plunderers and larcenies, whose intent had nil in common with sacred ends, which reformers used to warrant their actions. Alternatively, Choniates shows that reformers started the Crusade merely “because they were in privation of money ( for the savages are unable to satiate their love of wealths ) , they enviously eyed the bronze statues and consigned these to the flames….These savages, haters of the beautiful, did non let the statues standing in the Hippodrome and other fantastic plants of art to get away devastation, but all were made into coins. Therefore great things were exchanged for little 1s, those plants fashioned at immense disbursal were converted into worthless Cu coins.” ( Choniates, 604 ) . In such a manner, the writer shows that reformers were plunderers, who did non hold no sacred intents. Alternatively, they looked for money. In such a context, the Emperor and Constantinople were symbols of Christianity, who failed to defy to the force per unit area of reformers and fell under their onslaughts.

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By the center of the 15th century, the prominence of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire that it ruled had suffered a dramatic diminution. The metropolis found itself wholly surrounded by an Ottoman Empire tidal bore to spread out its sphere. The concluding blow came in the spring of 1453 when the Ottoman Turks, led by the Sultan Mehmed II, besieged the metropolis for 57 yearss. On May 29 the Sultan led an over-whelming force that successfully breached the walls of the metropolis and proceeded to slaughter the people. Following his triumph, the Sultan moved the Ottoman capital from Adrianople to Constantinople. The last trace of the ancient Roman Empire was no more.

The angered Turkish soldiers. gave no one-fourth. When they had massacred and there was no longer any opposition, they were purpose on loot and roamed through the town larceny, undressing, plundering, killing, ravishing, taking confined work forces, adult females, kids, old work forces, immature work forces, monastics, priests, people of all kinds and conditions. There were virgins who awoke from troubled slumber to happen those bandits standing over them with bloody custodies and faces full of low rage. This potpourri of all states, these frenetic beasts stormed into their houses, dragged them, rupture them, forced them, dishonored them, raped them at the cross-roads and made them subject to the most awful indignations. It is even said that at the mere sight of them many misss were so stupefied that they about gave up the shade.

Old work forces of venerable visual aspect were dragged by their white hair and piteously beaten. Priests were led into imprisonment in batches, every bit good as clergyman virgins, anchorites and hermits who were dedicated to God entirely and lived merely for Him to whom they sacrificed themselves, who were dragged from their cells and others from the churches in which they had sought safety, in malice of their crying and shortness of breath and their bony cheeks, to be made objects of contempt before being struck down. Tender kids were viciously snatched from their female parents ' chests and misss were mercilessly given up to strange and atrocious brotherhoods, and a thousand other awful things happened.

Temples were desecrated, ransacked and pillaged. sacred objects were contemptuously flung aside, the holy icons and the sanctum vass were desecrated. Decorations were burned, broken in pieces or merely thrown into the streets. Saints ' shrines were viciously violated in order to acquire out the remains which were so thrown to the air current. Chalices and cups for the jubilation of the Mass were set aside for their binges or interrupt or melted down or sold. Priests ' garments embroidered with gold and set with pearls and treasures were sold to the highest bidder and thrown into the fire to pull out the gold. Huge Numberss of sacred and blasphemous books were flung on the fire or tom up and trampled under pes. The bulk, nevertheless, were sold at derisory monetary values, for a few pence. Saints ' communion tables, Tom from their foundations, were overturned. All the most holy concealment topographic points were violated and broken in order to acquire out the sanctum hoarded wealths which they contained.

Medieval Sourcebook: Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople ( 1204 )

. How shall I get down to state of the workss wrought by these villainous work forces! Alas, the images, which ought to hold been adored, were trodden under pes! Alas, the relics of the holy sufferer were thrown into dirty topographic points! Then was se en what one frissons to hear, viz. , the Godhead organic structure and blood of Christ was spilled upon the land or thrown about. They snatched the cherished reliquaries, thrust into their bosoms the decorations which these contained, and used the broken leftovers for pans and imbibing cups, -precursors of Anti-Christ, writers and trumpeters of his villainous workss which we momently expect. Manifestly, so, by that race so, merely as once, Christ was robbed and insulted and His garments were divided by batch ; merely one thing was missing, that His side, pierced bv a spear, should pour rivers of Godhead blood on the land.

Nay more, a certain prostitute, a partaker in their guilt, a curate of the rages, a retainer of the devils, a worker of conjurations and toxic conditions, dissing Christ, sat in the patriarch 's place, singing an obscene vocal and dancing often. Nor, so, were these offenses committed and others left undone, on the land that these were of lesser guilt, the others of greater. But with one consent all the most flagitious wickednesss and offenses were committed by all with equal ardor. Could those, who showed so great lunacy against God Himself, have spared the honest matrons and maidens or the virgins consecrated to God?

No 1 was without a portion in the heartache. In the back streets, in the streets, in the temples, ailments, crying, Lamentationss, heartache, the groaning of work forces, the scream of adult females, lesions, colza, imprisonment, the separation of those most closely united. Lords wandered about disgracefully, those of venerable age in cryings, the rich in poorness. Thus it was in the streets, on the corners, in the temple, in the lairs, for no topographic point remained unassailed or defended the petitioners. All topographic points everyplace were filled full of all sorts of offense. Oh, immortal God, how great the afflictions of the work forces, bow great the hurt!

Sack of Constantinople, 1204

Marquis Boniface of Montferrat married the empress who had been the married woman of the Emperor Isaac, and was sister to the King of Hungary. He asked from Baldwin the metropolis of Thesalonica, the capital of the state of Macedonia, which was granted to him. Alexius Mourzuphlus who had taken with him the empress, married woman of the Emperor Alexius III, and his girl Eudokia, reached Messinopolis, a metropolis of Thrace. There, the former emperor received him and told him that he should be every bit welcome as if he were his ain boy, and that he would give him his girl to married woman, and do of him his boy. But when he found the opportunity he blinded him. Subsequently Alexius V Mourzuphlus was arrested by the Latins who murderered him by projecting him from the top of a column in Constantinople. This was the terminal for the adult male who tried without success to contend the Frankish encroachers. Alexius III Angelos was besides arrested by the reformers. On 1205, Baldwin and subsequently Boniface were killed by the male monarch of Bulgars, Ioannitzes. The Empire of Nicaea which faced three enemies: the Latins, the Bylgarians, and the Seljuq sultanate, proved worthy of the Byzantine traditions of contending on many foreparts at one time and of adept diplomatic negotiations. Theodore Lascaris and his son-in-law John III Vatatzes built up at Nicaea a microcosm of the Byzantine Empire and church in expatriate. The Latins were therefore ne'er able to derive a lasting bridgehead in Anatolia. Bibliography Constantine Paparhigopoulos - History of Helenic Nation Encyclopaedia Britannica Send electronic mail to webmaster

Byzantine-Ottoman Wars: Fall of Constantinople

Despite Grant 's success, morale in Constantinople began to plump as word was received that no assistance would be coming from Venice. In add-on, a series of portents including a midst, unexpected fog which blanketed the metropolis on May 26, convinced many that the metropolis was about to fall. Believing that the fog masked the going of the Holy Spirit from the Hagia Sophia, the population braced for the worst. Frustrated by the deficiency of advancement, Mehmed called a council of war on May 26. Meeting with his commanding officers, he decided that a monolithic assault would be launched on the dark of May 28/29 after a period of remainder and supplication.

Shortly earlier midnight on May 28, Mehmed sent his aides frontward. Poorly equipped, they were intended to pall and kill as many of the guardians as possible. These were followed by an assault against the diminished Blachernae walls by military personnels from Anatolia. These work forces succeeded in interrupting through but were rapidly counterattacked and driven back. Having achieved some success, Mehmed 's elect Janissaries attacked following but were held by Byzantine forces under Giustiniani. The Byzantines in Blachernae held until Giustiniani was severely wounded. As their commanding officer was taken to the rear, the defence began to prostration.

Ottoman losingss during the besieging are non known, but it is believed that the guardians lost around 4,000 work forces. A lay waste toing blow to Christendom, the loss of Constantinople led Pope Nicholas V to name for an immediate campaign to retrieve the metropolis. Despite his supplications, no Western sovereign stepped frontward to take the attempt. A turning point in Western history, the Fall of Constantinople is seen as the terminal of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance. Fling the metropolis, Grecian bookmans arrived in the West delivery with them priceless cognition and rare manuscripts. The loss of Constantinople besides severed European trade links with Asia taking many to get down seeking paths east by sea and identifying the age of geographic expedition. For Mehmed, the gaining control of the metropolis earned him the rubric `` The Conqueror '' and provided him with a cardinal base for runs into Europe. The Ottoman Empire held the metropolis until its prostration after World War I.

Constantinople – the Sack of 1204

Civilizations change when the paradigms that govern them alteration. Worlds relate to themselves and to each other through nonnatural values steadfastly imbedded in basic models. These values define how a society looks upon itself, how it interacts with other societies and its topographic point in history. For case, in the Middle Ages, most people believed that the Earth was level. The paradigm of a level Earth defined the bounds of geographics, political relations and history. When that paradigm changed and it was universally accepted that the Earth was unit of ammunition, it basically altered the manner civilisations related to each other. America was discovered, the oceans were conquered, the forms of trade changed, old imperiums fell and new 1s emerged.

In the huge view of history, certain mileposts stand out when a civilisation basically and perceptibly altered its paradigm and charted its class in a different way. The sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Crusaders was one such milepost. Indeed, it was the twelvemonth that the Latin West basically changed its orientation. Prior to the twelvemonth 1204, the focal point of the Crusades was the Cross and the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. After that day of the month, it was the glister of gold. Before 1204, the energy of Europe expressed itself through imaginativeness and monasticism. The continent was steeped in poorness and ignorance. Trade was at a deadlock. The talisman and the amulet, thaumaturgy and black magic were the mechanisms for communicating with the supernatural. The Church was the primary donee of this ignorance because it was the one establishment that claimed the privilege of distributing the talisman and the amulet.

This changed after the Latins captured Constantinople in 1204, rampaged through its streets, destroyed its relics, danced on the communion tables of its churches and looted its huge wealth. The Crusaders were a assorted group of Gallic barons, German provincials, Italian merchandisers and Latin priests. The gold and Ag that was carried off from the ancient Byzantine capital provided impulse for the prosperity of the Italian city states of Venice, Genoa and Florence. Italy was launched on its manner to the Renaissance that reached its zenith in the 15th and 16th centuries. Europe was transformed. After 1204, the energy of Europe found its look chiefly through economic sciences, trade and opportunism. The civilisation that produced the Renaissance and subsequently the Reformation and the Enlightenment was secular and bore small resemblance to the civilisation that had produced the First Crusade in 1096. There were more “Crusades” after the Campaign of 1204, but these were either looks of an economic push cloaked in spiritual nomenclature or a reaction to Turkish Marches into southeasterly Europe.

The preliminary to the historic events of 1204 was the declaration of a Campaign by Pope Innocent III in 1199. The loss of Jerusalem to Salahuddin was unpalatable to the Latin Church, which was staggering from farther lickings at the custodies of the Al Muhaddithin in Spain. The initial response to this call to weaponries was tepid. Europe was a divided house towards the terminal of the twelfth century. Count Baldwin challenged the Gallic throne. Germany had two claimants to the throne, Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick. Venice had lost its clasp on the western Adriatic. In Spain, the Muslims had driven the Crusaders back towards the boundary lines of France. The Crusader toehold in Palestine and Lebanon was at the clemency of the powerful Ayyubids. By declaring a Campaign, Pope Innocent sought to direct the energies of the warring Europeans towards a nonnatural end and roll up financess for the Church at the same clip.

Europe was broke and could non rally the energy for a new war against a renascent Islam. To raise financess, the Pope levied a revenue enhancement on all trusters. This was non a popular move and it generated small enthusiasm for another March on Palestine. The state of affairs changed and a flicker for the Crusade was lit, when two immature barons, Thibaut and Louis, “took the Cross” ( joined the Crusade ) at the tourney of Ecrysur-Aisne in northern France in 1199. These two barons, grandsons of Louis VII, enjoyed tremendous prestigiousness and shortly many other barons and knights from France besides enlisted. At the Council of Compeigne in 1200, it was decided that the warriors would go for Palestine by sea. Neither the dictators nor the church had a fleet. Therefore, they sought the aid of Venice, the lone city state on the Italian seashore, which had the resources to supply this aid.

Envoies were sent to Venice. The Venetians were a breed different from the Reformers from northern Europe. They were merchandisers, motivated by net income, even when the end was a super-ordinate one, such as the conquering of Jerusalem. They had maintained a alert trade with Egypt and Syria throughout the 10th and 11th centuries. Venice was ruled by an elective council, the doge and its caput in the twelvemonth 1201 was Enrico Dondolo. Savvy, politically sharp, facile, ruthless and unscrupulous beyond comparison, Dondolo was an old adult male, between 80 and 90 five old ages of age. He personified the original of a concern civilization, which had survived and prospered for centuries through buccaneering and trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Dondolo drove a difficult deal with the Crusader barons. In return for ferrying 20,000 pes soldiers and 4,500 knights and their Equus caballuss, he demanded a payment of 85,000 Ag Markss, a demand that was agreed to by the Pope. A contract was signed and the warriors began to piece in Venice.

But all the Ag home bases and tablespoons of the knights and barons of Europe could bring forth merely 29,000 Ag Markss. Dondolo saw his aureate chance and moved for the putting to death. He had built and delivered four 100 ships as per the contract. As compensation for his already completed attempts, Dondolo proposed that the Crusaders assist him in capturing the metropolis of Zara located on the eastern Adriatic ( today’s Croatia ) . Zara had long been coveted by Venice as a seaport for the supply of much needed hardwood from Croatia and Bosnia. In 1201, Zara was a Christian metropolis under the protection of the Hungarian sovereign, a fellow Christian and a Crusader under the legal power of the Pope. The Pope was ferocious at the suggestion and objected to this endeavor. But his bishops and archpriests in charge of the Crusade agreed to travel along with Dondolo, “in the involvement of a higher cause” , so that money could be raised by loot of Zara and the Crusade could go on on to Jerusalem. Zara was stormed, captured and looted. The Church made some noises but non a individual Ag candle holder stolen from Zara was returned, either by the invading Venetians or by the representatives of the Pope who accompanied them.

At this clip, an historic chance presented itself to the shrewd Dondolo who had the inherent aptitudes of a marauder. In 1185, the Byzantine Emperor Isaac had been dethroned by his ain brother Alexius, blinded and locked up in a keep. Isaac’s boy, besides named Alexius, escaped to Germany where his sister Irene was the queen and so on to Rome to appeal to the Pope for aid against his uncle. The Pope sensed at one time an chance to convey the Church of Constantinople under the Church of Rome. The chance of opening a land path to Palestine through Constantinople ruled by a plastic male monarch did non get away him either. With the acquiescence of the Pope, Dondolo’s fleet proceeded towards Constantinople, accompanied by 20,000 Gallic, Italian and German Crusaders, who were motivated more by lecherousness and the power of wealth than by the love of Christ.

The European original had changed, from a adult male of imaginativeness titillated by thaumaturgy and the amulet to a adult male of this universe motivated by the promise of loot. The heads of work forces were now fired by the glister of gold, non the vision of the cross. The defences of Constantinople were formidable. The walls of its bulwarks were the tallest in all of Europe. The entryway to the Golden Horne was blocked by a concatenation of steel anchored to wharfs on either side of the narrow passs. Dondolo knew the metropolis and its defences good, holding served as the Venetian embassador there for a long clip. He knew that the weakest defences were along the Golden Horne. A Venetian ship was loaded with steel shears and ordered to cut the steel concatenation. The metropolis was assaulted by sea, led by the old adult male himself and taken by storm on April 12, 1204. Young Alexius was installed on the throne, under the tuition of Rome and a demand for an extortionate amount of 400,000 Ag Markss was placed before him. Alexius could non raise this amount and tardily that twelvemonth attempted to throw out the encroachers. He was defeated and the metropolis was sacked.

The violent disorder of the metropolis was beyond description. Work force were killed by the 1000s and adult females raped. The hoarded wealths of the Byzantine tribunal, accumulated over a thousand old ages, were looted. The Equus caballuss of the Crusaders rode into the churches, sullying the sacred evidences with their garbage. The Church of Santa Sophia became a dancing hall. At the tallness of the slaughter, a cocotte stood on the place of the Patriarch and sang a lewd vocal, entertaining the brainsick encroachers. The glorification of Byzantium was trampled under the pess of the Latin mules. Treasures of the Byzantine Empire traveled west, to Venice and Rome. Upon the ashes of Byzantium rose the pirate provinces of eastern Italy. Economic consolidation had begun, cemented by the gold of Constantinople. In due class, this would give birth to the Renaissance. A civilisation died and a new civilisation was born, destined to rule the Earth. History had taken a bend and the universe would non be the same once more.

The Great Schism

After the fourth century when Constantinople emerged as a great capital and church centre, tensenesss sometimes arose between its leaders and the bishop of Rome. After the autumn of Rome to Germanic encroachers in 476, the Roman Catholic Pope was the lone defender of Christian universalism in the West. He began more explicitly to impute his laterality to Rome & apos ; s being the burial topographic point of Saint Peter, whom Jesus had called the `` stone '' on which the church was to be built. The Eastern Christians respected that tradition and recognized the Roman patriarch to a step of honest authorization. But they ne'er believed that this authorization allowed the pontificate to overturn another church or that it made the Catholic Pope into a universally dependable figure within the larger church.

The Orthodox tradition asserted that the character and rights of the church were to the full present in each local community of Orthodox trusters with its ain bishop. All bishops were equal, and patriarchs or synods of bishops exercised merely an `` inadvertence of attention '' among the organic structure of coequal bishops. The precedency of award of single national churches depended on historical rank. Therefore, the patriarchate of Constantinople understood its ain place to be determined wholly by the fact that Constantinople, the `` new Rome, '' was the place of the Roman emperor and the Senate in a universe where church boundaries, for administrative grounds, reflected political bounds.

Apart from the different apprehensions of the personality of church power, the most important doctrinal difference between Eastern and Western Christians arose over the exact diction of the Nicene Creed. The Orthodox churches demanded that no words be added to or taken off from the antediluvian and cardinal statement of the religion, as issued by the councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in the fourth century. During the early Middle Ages the Latin word filioque, intending `` and from the Son, '' was added in the Latin Christian universe, therefore rendering the credo as `` I believe Ð & apos ; . in the Holy Spirit Ð & apos ; . who proceeds from the Father and from the Son. '' Carolus and his replacements promoted the effusion, chiefly opposed by the Catholic Popes, in Europe. Finally, it was besides accepted in Rome in approximately 1014. Western theologists believed that this instruction preserved the spirit of the original credo. But Orthodox instructors believed that it had non merely gone against the authorization of the council but besides introduced an thought that disrupted the consistence of the philosophy of the Trinity. Soon both the Western church and Orthodox churches began to look upon one another as holding deviated from Christian truth.

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

The sack of Constantinople is a major turning point in mediaeval history and Christianity more by and large. The Crusaders ' determination to assail a major Christian capital was unprecedented and instantly controversial, even among the Crusaders themselves. Relationss between the western and eastern Christian universes were badly wounded and would non to the full retrieve for 100s of old ages afterwards, and the Byzantine Empire became poorer, smaller, and less able to support itself against the Turkish conquerings that followed. The Fourth Crusade therefore left Christendom more divided and weakened than earlier.

Before the besieging

The Massacre of the Latins ( Italian: Massacro dei Latini ; Grecian: Σφαγή τῶν Λατίνων ) , a large-scale slaughter of the Roman Catholic or `` Latin '' dwellers of Constantinople by the Eastern Orthodox population of the metropolis in May 1182, had a dramatic consequence on the split between the Western and Eastern Christian churches. The slaughter besides farther worsened the image of the Byzantines in the eyes of the Western powers, and, although regular trade understandings were shortly resumed between Byzantium and Latin provinces, the implicit in ill will would stay, go forthing many westerners seeking some signifier of retaliation.

On 25 January 1204, the decease of co-Emperor Isaac II set off rioting in Constantinople in which the people deposed Alexios IV, who turned to the Crusaders for aid but was imprisoned by the imperial Chamberlain, Alexios Doukas, who declared himself Emperor on 5 February. Emperor Alexios V so attempted to negociate with the Reformers for a backdown from Byzantine district, but they refused to abandon their old pact with Alexios IV. When Alexios V ordered Alexios IV 's executing on 8 February, the Reformers declared war on Alexios V. In March 1204, the Crusader and Venetian leading decided on the straight-out conquering of Constantinople, and drew up a formal understanding to split the Byzantine Empire between them.

Capture of the metropolis

On 12 April 1204 conditions conditions eventually favoured the Crusaders as the conditions cleared and a 2nd assault on the metropolis was ordered. A strong north air current aided the Venetian ships near the Golden Horn to come near to the metropolis wall, which enabled the aggressors to prehend some of the towers along the wall. After a short conflict about 70 Reformers managed to come in the metropolis. Some Reformers were finally able to strike hard holes in the walls big plenty for a few knights at a clip to creep through ; the Venetians were besides successful at scaling the walls from the sea, although there was highly bloody contending with the Varangians. The Crusaders captured the Blachernae subdivision of the metropolis in the Northwest and used it as a base to assail the remainder of the metropolis, but while trying to support themselves with a wall of fire they ended up firing down even more of the metropolis. Emperor Alexios V fled from the metropolis that dark through the Polyandriou ( Rhegium ) Gate and escaped into the countryside to the West.

Sack of Constantinople

The Crusaders looted, terrorized, and vandalized Constantinople for three yearss, during which many antediluvian and mediaeval Roman and Greek plants were either stolen or destroyed. The celebrated bronze Equus caballuss from the Hippodrome were sent back to decorate the façade of St Mark 's Basilica in Venice, where they remain. Equally good as being stolen, plants of unmeasurable artistic value were destroyed simply for their stuff value. One of the most cherished plants to endure such a destiny was a big bronze statue of Hercules, created by the legendary Lysippos, tribunal sculpturer of Alexander the Great. Like so many other priceless graphicss made of bronze, the statue was melted down for its content by the Crusaders. The great Library of Constantinople was destroyed every bit good.

Despite their curses and the menace of exclusion, the Crusaders consistently violated the metropolis 's holy sanctuaries, destructing or stealing all they could put custodies on ; nil was spared, non even the grave of the emperors inside the St Apostles church. The civilian population of Constantinople were capable to the Crusaders ' ruthless lecherousness for spoils and glorification ; 1000s of them were killed in cold blood. Women, even nuns, were raped by the Crusader ground forces, which besides sacked churches, monasteries and convents. The really communion tables of these churches were smashed and torn to pieces for their gold and marble by the warriors. Although the Venetians engaged in plundering excessively, their actions were far more reticent. Doge Dandolo still appeared to hold far more control over his work forces. Rather than wantonly destructing all around like their companions, the Venetians stole spiritual relics and plants of art, which they would subsequently take to Venice to decorate their ain churches.

Aftermath

Harmonizing to a prearranged pact the imperium was apportioned between Venice and the campaign 's leaders, and the Latin Empire of Constantinople was established. Boniface was non elected as the new emperor, although the citizens seemed to see him as such ; the Venetians thought he had excessively many connexions with the former imperium because of his brother, Renier of Montferrat, who had been married to Maria Comnena, empress in the 1170s and 80s. Alternatively they placed Baldwin of Flanders on the throne. He was crowned Emperor in the Hagia Sophia as Baldwin I of Constantinople. Boniface went on to establish the Kingdom of Thessalonica, a vassal province of the new Latin Empire. The Venetians besides founded the Duchy of the Archipelago in the Aegean Sea.

Bequest

Eight hundred old ages after the Fourth Crusade, Pope John Paul II twice expressed sorrow for the events of the Fourth Crusade. In 2001 he wrote to Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens, stating, `` It is tragic that the attackers, who set out to procure free entree for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their brothers in the religion. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep sorrow. '' In 2004, while Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, was sing the Vatican, John Paul II asked, `` How can we non portion, at a distance of eight centuries, the hurting and disgust? '' This has been regarded as an apology to the Grecian Orthodox Church for the slaughter perpetrated by the warriors of the Fourth Crusade.

In April 2004, in a address on the 800th day of remembrance of the gaining control of the metropolis, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I officially accepted the apology. `` The spirit of rapprochement is stronger than hatred, '' he said during a Holy Eucharist attended by Roman Catholic Archbishop Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, France. `` We receive with gratitude and esteem your affable gesture for the tragic events of the Fourth Crusade. It is a fact that a offense was committed here in the metropolis 800 old ages ago. '' Bartholomew said his credence came in the spirit of Pascha. `` The spirit of rapprochement of the Resurrection. incites us toward rapprochement of our churches. ''

The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople

The gaining control of Constantinople by the ground forcess of the Fourth Crusade was one of the most singular episodes in mediaeval history. One of their figure wrote, ‘No history could of all time associate wonders greater than those as far as the lucks of war are concerned’ . On April 12th, 1204, an ground forces of possibly 20,000 work forces and a fleet of about 200 ships crewed by Venetian crewmans and warriors, broke in and began to plunder the greatest city in the Christian universe. Constantinople’s mighty walls had resisted legion onslaughts as the Avars, Persians and Arabs had tried to assault its defense mechanisms over the centuries. Yet ever ‘the queen of cities’ , as the Byzantines described their capital, had survived. What had brought the reformers to assail their fellow Christians and how did they pull off to win? The reformers understood their success as a manifestation of God’s will. One commented, ‘There can be no uncertainty that the manus of the Lord guided all of these events’ .

Sack of Constantinople ( 1204 ) & Unknown Byzantine Atrocities

With reluctance, unhappiness, and sorrow, Catholics must squarely turn to the issue of the bagging of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire ( hence the centre of Orthodoxy ) , in 1204 by the Latin Crusaders. Ideally, the legion historical wickednesss which members of both sides have committed – given the common recognition of wrongdoing – should be left, for the interest of integrity and good will, for the historiographers to chew over over. Yet this incident was so tragic and has of all time since been recalled with such hurting and choler amongst Orthodox ( and therefore used as an “argument” against the Catholic Church ) that it merely can non be ignored even in the context of friendly oecumenic treatment. Bishop Kallistos Ware remarks:

So the first thing to be noted is that this hideous event is morally untenable, and that Catholics know and accept this. Second, and most significantly, the Catholic Pope at the clip, Pope Innocent III, neither knew about nor sanctioned in the least this slaughter and blasphemous loot. In fact, he had forbidden the Crusaders, on hurting of exclusion, to assail Byzantium, teaching the leader, Boniface of Montferrat, that: “The campaign must non assail Christians, but should continue every bit rapidly as possible to the Holy Land.” He merely found out the full horror of what had happened more than eight months subsequently, and wrote to Cardinal Peter Capuano, denouncing the sack in no unsure footings:

Atrocious and utterly untenable as the sack was, it should in justness be remembered that it was non wholly motiveless ; more than one time ( as in the slaughter of 1182 ) the Greeks of Constantinople had treated the Latins there as they were now being treated. Historians who wax facile and incensed – with considerable ground – about the sack of Constantinople. seldom if of all time mention the slaughter of the westerners in Constantinople in 1182. a bloodcurdling slaughter of 1000s, . in which the butchers spared neither adult females nor kids, neither old nor ill, neither priest nor monastic. Cardinal John, the Pope’s representative, was beheaded and his caput was dragged through the streets at the tail of a Canis familiaris ; kids were cut out of their mother’s uteruss ; organic structures of dead Westerners were exhumed and abused ; some 4,000 who escaped decease were sold into bondage to the Turks.

Frederick Barbarossa. requested permission of the Eastern Emperor, Isaac II Angelus, for transition of his ground forces through Byzantine rules on the manner to the Holy Land, and for the right to buy nutrient for his military personnels within them. Isaac said he agreed. but in fact Isaac was resolved to oppose the transition of the reformers, and made contact with Saladin to concert programs “to hold and destruct the German army.” About this “Byzantine treachery” there is no uncertainty ; even the many modern Western historiographers sympathetic to Byzantium and hostile to the Campaigns have to acknowledge it.

returned to Frederick. with infuriating ( and accurate ) studies of the Byzantine confederation with Saladin, plans to destruct the fighting ground forces as it crossed the Dardanelles, and the violent anti-Western attitude of Patriarch Dositheus of Constantinople, who had offered unconditioned absolution to any Grecian killing a Westerner. Frederick passed on this information to his boy Henry, . to inquire the Pope’s blessing for a campaign against the Eastern Empire because of its perfidy and traffics with the enemy. No Papal blessing was given and Frederick shortly thought better of the thought. Though a war against Christians was beyond doubt a perversion of the crusading ideal, Emperor Isaac’s acts against the reformers had clearly been Acts of the Apostless of war.

In decision, it is wholly to be expected that certain disciples ( existent or supposed ) of both parties in any monolithic, long-running difference such as that between Eastern and Western Christianity, will be guilty of serious wickedness. It has been established that the untenable bagging of Constantinople was non without old precipitating events on the portion of the Byzantines, barely any less evil or immoral. Therefore, the “sin” or “corruption” statement ( as with Catholicism and Protestantism ) cuts both ways ( as is ever the instance ) . As such, it ought to be discarded, and oecumenic treatments productively confined to affairs of divinity, Holy Eucharist, ecclesiology and moral divinity.

In any event, the bagging of Constantinople in no wise disproves Catholic theological or ecclesiological claims, particularly in visible radiation of the fact that the Catholic Pope at the clip, Innocent III, forbade such military farces against fellow Christians on hurting of exclusion, and excoriated the culprits for their abominations. These recreant “crusaders” were merely non moving as Catholics, neither in the sense of Catholic moral instruction, nor in footings of any countenance of apostolic authorization. To pull a modern analogy, if some nominally Orthodox Serbian soldiers had wantonly massacred or raped Bosnian Muslims ( as so occurred ) , it would non be at all carnival for Catholics to state that this reflects sick upon Orthodoxy per Se.

Some Orthodox who object to the above presentation demand to separate between “minimizing” and “explaining the background of.” They are different things. I would ne'er postulate that these events didn’t have an tremendously negative consequence on the Eastern Christian consciousness. To make so would be absolute stupidity. Many Orthodox, on the other manus, seem to believe their side has ne'er or seldom committed any atrociousnesss against western Christians, which is obviously false. Catholic-bashing is really stylish: secularists, Protestants, and Orthodox likewise indulge in it with impunity. I think it’s clip that “the other side” ( ours ) was heard for a alteration.

I argue the same manner vis-a-vis the sixteenth century events and Protestants, or refering the Allies in World War II, or the North in the Civil War. This is my standard attack. Many Orthodox, on the other manus, casually assume that the West was worse historically. That said, I should indicate out that I am non really fond of the Crusades in general. It was a baronial thought in theory which went radically and tragically incorrect in pattern ( with a few noteworthy exclusions ) . It is true, nevertheless, that the history of the Crusades has been distorted and abused, like virtually all history affecting the Catholic Church at all ( expression at, e.g. , the Spanish Civil War, where more than 3,000 clergy were massacred by the alleged “Republicans” , or secular histories of Columbus, or the “Black Legend” of Spain ) .

To reiterate: this stuff is offered as an effort to “balance the scales.” This is one of those events which is habitually presented in a nonreversible manner: all against the Catholic Church, and non a word about Orthodox wickednesss. But events do non go on in an historical vacuity. As with my stuffs on “Protestant Intolerance and Persecution, ” I seek to demo that there are frequently no “good guys” to be found when we are sing the tragic events of history. A position which holds that either the Orthodox or Protestants were and are significantly morally superior to Catholics ( either personally or institutionally ) is absurd and ludicrous, and I consider this self-evident. As Solzhenitsyn ( the Orthodox – albeit nominal – that I admire most ) said, the line between good and evil tallies through each individual’s bosom.

Why the ageless nonreversible presentations? I suspect because they are a convenient nine to crush us over the caput with. This is an old maneuver: disregard what the Church and the facts of history say on any given dirt or atrociousness, and besides disregard the similar skeletons in one’s ain cupboard. My position – once more – is merely to keep that wickedness is cosmopolitan, and that it proves nil one manner or the other as to who possesses true philosophy and divinity. It is when wickedness is institutionally sanctioned that I personally draw the line and do my pick as to what organic structure preserves apostolic and traditional Christian morality.

It is notable in this respect that the slaughters of Venetians in 1171 were perpetrated, harmonizing to Carroll, “on the orders or at least with the silent blessing of the Byzantine government.” The perfidy of 1188 against Frederick Barbarossa and the Crusaders, by Eastern Emperor Isaac II, was evidently ( by definition ) from a place of high authorization besides ( as the Byzantine Emperor was by nature besides a leader in the Orthodox Church ) . Frederick asked the Catholic Pope for blessing for a campaign against Isaac but was turned down by the Catholic Pope and shortly thought better of it. Likewise, Patriarch Dositheus of Constantinople offered unconditioned absolution to any Grecian killing a westerner.

I refuse to see the atrocious event of 1204 in isolation, because that is the truly biased and imbalanced ( even surrounding on infantile ) method of reading history, and mitigates against larning from its lessons. It is a basically broad mentality which ne'er looks back at history to larn ( and speculate ) why things happened the manner they did – why we are in the boat we are in now. The fact remains that 1204 was non sanctioned from the top, whereas Eastern slaughters and perfidy in 1171, 1182, and 1188 were.To me, that is the telling point in all this trading of horror narratives, because it illustrates the difference in the unity and rule of authorization between the two cantonments at the highest degrees.

I wonder why this incident is ever brought up amongst Orthodox? What is the intent of that? To turn out the Catholic Church is evil? I think that’s farcical. If it does non turn out the evil nature of the Western Church, so of what usage is it to invariably speak about this, when no 1 in their right head ( cognizing the facts ) defends it? I would ne'er hold written about either Orthodox or Protestant atrociousnesss and unsavoury incidents ( as I prefer the proactive, positive attack ) if my detached brethren had non bandied Catholic “historical sins” about with great contempt ( and excessively frequently, hilarities ) . Once that is done, so I must “balance the historical record, ” merely as ( to utilize an analogy from political relations ) Rush Limbaugh gives the counterpoison to permeant left-of-center prejudice in the media. It’s ever an acclivitous conflict for us Catholics, because we labour under this avalanche of misinformation and emotional ill will.

The sad fact is, that the sack of 1204 is brought up far excessively frequently, and I don’t believe that is contributing to the coveted ends of integrity and ecumenism ( particularly one time all the facts about it and its precipitating causes are understood ) . If we can keep a 795-year-old score, why non travel further back? Let’s hold a score against the Egyptians for enslaving Moses and the Hebrews back in 1400 BC or so. Let’s begrudge Italy because the Romans sacked Jerusalem in 70 AD. Let’s acquire huffy at Greece ( Macedonia? ) for Alexander the Great’s many conquerings. If clip has no bearing on wickedness, so why non make that? The Serbians remember their conflict of 1389 like yesterday, we are told, so why non 1204, excessively? Even secular society does better at burying than that. Look at our friendly attitude towards the Germans and Nipponese, for illustration – a mere 50 old ages after they were both our person enemies in the greatest war of universe history. Can’t the Church do a little better than that?

Belisarius had warned the Neapolitans at the beginning of the besieging that if they put up any opposition he would be unable to keep his army–which, he reminded them, was mostly composed of semi-savage barbarians–from the slaying, rape and loot which they would see their merely wages after the gaining control of the metropolis. But the warning had been ignored, and the suffering citizens now paid the monetary value of their gallantry. It was many hours before Belisarius was able to carry his assortment hosts of Alans and Isaurians, Herulians and Huns–these last the most terrifying of all clip, being heathens, they had no remorse in firing down the churches in which their intended victims had sought asylum–to set up their blades and lances and return to their assorted cantonments.

( 3 ) A “millennium of malice” is a bit excessively obscure. There no uncertainty have been offenses committed against Eastern Christians by Latins–the sack of Constantinople ( 1204 ) , in 16/c Poland, the Balkans during WW II. Likewise, the Easterners have persecuted Catholics throughout the Russian Empire from the 18/c-early 20/c, followed by the forced settlement and bloody persecution of the Greek Catholic churches of Russia, Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, and Romania by the Communists with whom the Orthodox collaborated, every bit good as continual machinations ( in confederation with the Turks ) against Catholics in the Middle East and centuries of anti-Catholic action in the Balkans ( on this last, small told history, see Ivo Omrcanin, Forced Conversions of Croatians to the Serbian Faith in History – Paper Presented to the III World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies, Washington, D.C. , 1985 ) . None of which is to state I excuse anti-Eastern actions. I approach the East in a spirit of repentance and forgiveness. I merely hope for some reciprocity–which, I am afraid, is excessively small forthcoming.

Other Catholic/Orthodox Subjects

`` Some memories are particularly painful, and some events of the distant yesteryear have left deep lesions in the heads and Black Marias of people to this twenty-four hours. I am believing of the black sack of the imperial metropolis of Constantinople, which was for so long the bastion of Christianity in the East. It is tragic that the attackers, who had set out to procure free entree for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their ain brothers in the religion. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep sorrow. How can we neglect to see here the 'mysterium iniquitatis ' at work in the human bosom? To God entirely belongs judgement and, hence, we entrust the heavy load of the yesteryear to his endless clemency, beging him to mend the lesions that still cause enduring to the spirit of the Grecian people. ''

The Sack of 1204, what happened?

I 've late been reading a book by John J. Robinson called `` Dungeon, Fire, and Sword -- a history of the Crusades '' . Robinson is clearly no friend of the Roman Catholic Church, and I will even travel so far as to state that he is anti-Catholic in his point of position, but he does give an interesting history of the Crusader 's sack on Constantinople in 1204. I thought I 'd portion this with you, so that we might research the history. This is why I 'm utilizing `` anti-Catholic Robinson '' as the beginning. While I am surely non supporting the atrociousnesss committed, I think many will happen it edifying that the sack of Constantinople was non a `` devilish program '' sponsored by the pontificate. It was a really sad narrative all around.

The Crusades began in the 1090’s –that is, 40 old ages after the Orthodox desecrated the Latin Eucharist and holy books ( because they were in Latin instead than Greek ) . The Byzantine patriarch attacked the Latin churches in Constantinople itself - - Latin-speaking churches which existed since the clip of Constantine ; and he declared that their Holy sacrament was invalid because the Romans use unleven ( instead than leven ) staff of life -- something that the Western Church ( along with the Armenian Church ) has ever done since the clip of the Apostles ( Jesus Himself used unleven bread at the Last Supper, since it was a Passover banquet and at that place would non hold been any leven staff of life in Jerusalem at the clip ) . But, the Eastern Patriarch Cerularius tried to coerce the Byzantine rite on the Romans life in the Eastern Empire. So, he took armed soldier into the Latin churches in Constantinople, and had them open the Tabernacles and throw the dedicated Holy sacrament in the streets. This is discussed by both Kallistos Ware and by Meyendorff in their books. This is the beginning of Rome ( a church which continued to allow and promote Byzantine worship in its ain metropolis ) functioning Cerularius with a bull of exclusion in 1054. Cerularius did this because the Franks who were lieges of the Roman Empire were deriving political power in the Balkans and so the Emperor and Patriarch wanted to trade name them as misbelievers and therefore reject their authorization in the Balkans.

Meanwhile, the campaign leaders negotiated with the aged Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, who was particularly interested in the relationship of Boniface Monferrat and immature Prince Alexius. Dondolo had ever hated the Greeks -- non merely because they were Venice 's commercial challengers, but because as a young person he had suffered a face lesion in the streets of Constantinople that had about wholly blinded him. The usurper Alexius III had taken a difficult line with Venetian bargainers, who depended upon the Grecian trading Stationss to acquire pelts from Russia and silks from China, so the Doge was really `` sympathetic '' to his immature Byzantine invitee.

The Crusade wintered in Zara, and during that clip Doge Dondolo, Prince Alexius, and Boniface of Monferrat formed a program. If the Crusade would travel to Constantinople and assist Alexius recover the throne, the immature prince would guarantee the success of the Egyptian invasion. He would pay the Crusaders ' debt to Venice, every bit good as strengthen the Crusading ground forces with 10,000 Byzantine soldiers ; and one time the war was over, he would keep 500 mounted work forces in the Holy Land to assist the Christians hold Egypt. And, most of import of all, he would vouch that the Grecian Church would acknowledge the primacy of Rome. It seemed like a really good trade. .Especially to the Venetians, who had their ain thoughts.

In January of 1204, 5 months after the reformers were admitted to the metropolis, the son-in-law of the usurper Alexius III, Alexius Marzuphlus -- seemingly seeking to do a drama for the Crown himself -- organized a public violence against the unwanted Westerners. A few hebdomads subsequently, an embassy of the Crusaders was attacked by the crowd as they left the imperial castle. Soon after, a rabble of Byzantine citizens flooded into Hagia Sophia and declared that Alexius IV was deposed, put uping a Lord named Nicholas Canabus in his topographic point. But, Marzuphlus, the supplanter 's son-in-law, had no purpose of allowing person else reap the wagess of the rebellion he started. With a set of armed soldiers, he stormed the imperial castle, and both Canabus and Emperor Alexius IV were dragged off into prison -- the immature Alexius being instantly executed ; strangled to decease with a bowstring! .As meanwhile, his blind male parent, Emperor Isaac, was viciously beaten ; deceasing a few yearss subsequently.

Atrocious and utterly untenable as the sack was, it should in justness be remembered that it was non wholly motiveless ; more than one time ( as in the slaughter of 1182 ) the Greeks of Constantinople had treated the Latins there as they were now being treated. Historians who wax facile and incensed - with considerable ground - about the sack of Constantinople. seldom if of all time mention the slaughter of the Westerners in Constantinople in 1182 ( merely 22 old ages before ) . a bloodcurdling slaughter of 1000s [ about 2000 Greeks were killed in Constantinople in 1204, harmonizing to secular historiographer Will Durant ] , . in which the butchers spared neither adult females nor kids, neither old nor ill, neither priest nor monastic. Cardinal John, the Pope 's representative, was beheaded and his caput was dragged through the streets at the tail of a Canis familiaris ; kids were cut out of their female parent 's uterus ; organic structures of dead Westerners were exhumed and abused ; some 4,000 who escaped decease were sold into bondage to the Turks.

. ( merely **16 yrs** before ) Frederick Barbarossa. requested permission of the Eastern Emperor, Isaac II Angelus, for transition of his ground forces through Byzantine rules on the manner to the Holy Land, and for the right to buy nutrient for his military personnels within them. Isaac said he agreed. but in fact Isaac was resolved to oppose the transition of the reformers, and made contact with Saladin to concert programs `` to detain and destruct the German ground forces. '' About this `` Byzantine perfidy '' there is no uncertainty ; even the many modern Western historiographers sympathetic to Byzantium and hostile to the Campaigns have to acknowledge it [ e.g. , Emperor Isaac, in 1187, had written Saladin to compliment him for his great accomplishment of re-taking Jerusalem from the Latin reformers ] .

returned to Frederick. with infuriating ( and accurate ) studies of the Byzantine confederation with Saladin, plans to destruct the fighting ground forces as it crossed the Dardanelles, and the violent anti-Western attitude of Patriarch Dositheus of Constantinople, who had offered unconditioned absolution to any Grecian killing a Westerner. Frederick passed on this information to his boy Henry, . to inquire the Pope 's blessing for a campaign against the Eastern Empire because of its perfidy and traffics with the enemy. No Papal blessing was given and Frederick shortly thought better of the thought. Though a war against Christians was beyond doubt a perversion of the crusading ideal, Emperor Isaac 's Acts of the Apostless against the reformers had clearly been Acts of the Apostless of war. Everything that the Fourth Crusade subsequently did to Christendom 's disrepute, Frederick Barbarossa refused to do.. The extent of Byzantine aggravation of the Third Crusade is obvious from the sequence of events. It would be a long clip before anyone in the West would swear them once more. { Carroll, ibid. , pp. 130, 132-133 }

who was to fault for the sack of Constantinople in 1204?

Transfer-Encoding: chunked Who was to fault for the sack of Constantinople in 1204? The 4th campaign set out to destruct enemies of the Christians and recapture Jerusalem via Egypt yet none of this was accomplished but alternatively Christians killed their fellow Christians, in what was one of the worst bloopers in history. Blame can be put on many parties with the chief being western Christendom whom attacked the metropolis, nevertheless the Venetians besides played apart and there is a possibility that the Byzantines ought such panic upon themselves. The Crusaders seem to be the most obvious pick when it comes to puting incrimination as they were the 1s who committed such flagitious Acts of the Apostless in the name of western Christendom. There are many anterior grounds which led to the bagging of the Byzantines capital metropolis. The first of which being the gross misreckoning in the spring of 1202 in which the Crusaders drastically overestimated the sum of military personnels they could beat up for the crusading cause. .read more.

Thibault was a extremely influential figure and his upon his decease many of his followings probably abandoned his cause. Furthermore, the fire of 1203 was non started because the Crusader were pyromaniacs but alternatively because they had grown impatient due the delaying of their payments by Alexios I, which was greatly needed in order to pay the Venetians. Alternatively, the Venetians can besides be blamed as they mastered the art of puppeteering the Crusading force. If it was non for the changeless demands on the Crusaders to refund their debts so they may non hold been put into the place of holding to sack Christian metropoliss, the Venetians besides aided the fighting ground forces greatly upon the existent bagging of Constantinople. However the Venetians were a commercial people and as such could non hold merely forgiven and forgot for non paying their debts. After such a big order arrangement by the Crusaders for ships that could transport 33,500, the Venetians likely had to suspend production for up to a.read more.

This state of affairs was merely worsened by the fact that the bulk of the metropolis? s population did non welcome him back with unfastened weaponries, as such the Crusaders and the Venetians were non good received upon their backup of Alexios IV in 1203. This was non the terminal of Alexios? hapless determination devising as he stopped providing the Crusading force in 1203, straight doing the fire started by the Crusaders. Even after the disposal of Alexios by Mourtzouphlos the province of determination devising did non better as he sent the Crusaders and Venetians out of the metropolis with no commissariats as such they were left with small options, doing the sack of Constantinople really attractive. In decision, the bulk of the incrimination rested upon the shoulders of the Byzantines. Due to the fact that the other involved parties merely acted out of privation for the fulfillment of their purposes. Whereas the deficiency of determination doing ability on portion of the Byzantine leaders cause th fighting force to move every bit headlong as they did therefore doing the sack of Constantinople. .read more.

The Sack of Constantinople, 1204 By Monk Andrew Source: Doxa - Date: Whitsunday 2001

The negative and widely publicized reaction of many Greeks against the Pope 's recent visit has really much to make with the Sack of Constantinople in 1204. However one feels about their reaction, to measure it reasonably, we need to understand why the Sack of Constantinople stirs up more emotion than weighty theological differences with Rome. American newspaper articles have pooh-poohed Grecian feelings, stating in consequence, `` Truly! Such a long clip to keep a score. '' But authors in these same documents will sorrow over long-ago calamities such as the Spanish loot of the Aztec and Inca civilizations. They support the Judaic pickings of Jerusalem after an absence of about 2,000 old ages. But Grecian grief over the loot and conquering of their unbelievable City is dismissed as overzealous.

In 1204, Constantinople, New Rome, Byzantium, the Capital of the lasting half of the Roman Empire had for about 900 old ages been the Queen City of the universe. It far outshone Old Rome, for many centuries but a shadow of its former ego. The Greeks kept alive the propensity and the linguistic communication of their heathen ascendants. Ancient wisdom was alive and good in Constantinople: Aristotle, Plato, and the other giants of Grecian idea were still read and studied in the original lingua. Constantinople was filled with beautiful churches and invaluable icons. The authorities promoted Christian values. The Byzantine Emperors even displayed a singular societal scruples. There were public infirmaries, and places for the hapless and for reformed cocottes. Monasteries for work forces and for adult females offered instruction, religious advocate and safety. There was even tolerance for minorities, including the Jews. Constantinople was alone in the ancient World.

Constantinople was known far and broad as `` the City. '' Even after the Turks conquered it, they continued to name it by that name, `` Istanbul, '' a corruptness of the Greek, `` Eis Sn Polin, '' `` To the City. '' But in 1204 the Fourth Crusade deviated from its intended class towards Palestine, and attacked Constantinople. By all histories the Sack of The City by Italian, German, French, English, Irish and Scots Crusaders was overpoweringly brutal and cruel. Thousands of ancient manuscript books were burned, and much pre-Christian acquisition was wiped out. It was the Tailban devastation of the ancient statues of Buddha multiplied 1000s of times. Artistic hoarded wealths were stolen or merely destroyed. Plundered hoarded wealths from Constantinople are still found in museums and churches all over Europe. ( Possibly, like the gold stolen by the Nazis, it is clip these hoarded wealths are returned to the descendant of their rightful proprietors. ) Then the Crusaders ruled the Byzantine Empire for the following 57 old ages.

True, the Byzantines themselves, like all peoples antediluvian and modern, were guilty of atrociousnesss, but ne'er anything even remotely close to the mindless devastation in Constantinople. The consequence was as if some immense ground forces of modem bullies devastated Paris or New York. Constantinople ne'er to the full recovered, and its conquering by the Reformers in 1204 set the phase for the Turkish conquering in 1453. Western Europe jeopardized its ain being by weakening its chief rampart against the Islamic jehad. The sophisticated Greeks, with a history every bit antediluvian as that of the Chinese and the Jews, could merely believe of the Western Europeans as witless savages.

The traumatic consequence of the Sack of Constantinople on the Greeks was and is deep. The mediaeval Papacy was indirectly complicit in the Sack. The Byzantine Church, considered `` schismatic, '' needed humbling. ( Numerous Orthodox feel that attitude still exists in Roman because of attempts to transform Orthodox communities into `` Byzantine Catholics. '' ) Little admiration, so, that so many Greeks resented the Papal visit. Pope John Paul II 's dear look of sorrow for the Sack of Constantinople indicates he acknowledges the complicity of his predecessors and of his Church. One hopes that, backed by actions, it will open doors to honest duologue.

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On its eastern side, it consisted of Asia Minor or Anatolia, and portion of Armenia along with the island of Cyprus. In the West it covered Greece and the Balkans South of the Danube, the Aegean and Ionian islands, and Crete. The imperium besides had a few stray outstations across the Black Sea in the Crimea, most notably the metropolis of Cherson, and portion of southern Italy, the states of Calabria and Apulia. These boundary lines were the consequence of a considerable enlargement which had taken topographic point over the old centuries, particularly during the reigns of the ambitious emperors such as Justinian I `` the Great '' ( 527-565 ) , Heraclius ( 601-641 ) , Nikephoros II Phokas ( 963-969 ) , John I Tzimiskes ( 969– 76 ) and Basil II ( 976– 1025 ) .

The eleventh-century Eastern Roman Empire was a affluent, powerful province, organized in themata ( administrative and subsequently military ) with broad boundary lines but one which did non specify itself in footings of those things but instead through a carefully worked out political and religious political orientation. The Emperor was in theory, nil less than the locum tenens of God on Earth. The emperor was expected to copy God, exposing appropriate piousness and philanthropia in order to carry through his allotted undertaking of guaranting the temporal public assistance of God’s people. The emperor was answerable to no 1 and received his power straight from God, an thought made ocular in Byzantine art through portraitures of Christ and/or the Virgin Mary – in Constantinople called “Theotokos” ( Θεοτόκος ) - coronating a haloed emperor.

There is an about unbroken sequence of historian administrative officials right down to Nikephoros Gregoras ( c. 1295-1360 ) in the 14th century. To this list one might add Anna Komnene ( 1083 – 1153 ) , who wrote the life of her male parent, Alexios I Komnenos ( 1048 or 1056 – 15 August 1118 - Eastern Roman Emperor from 1081 to 1118 ) . Even though as a princess of the blood she was non portion of the elitecorps of administrative officials, she shared their educational background, holding foremost taken lessons in secret with the castle castrate, before traveling on to the traditional Trivium and Quadrivium. She was good placed to show the purposes behind Byzantine policy during the reign of Alexios.

Furthermore, the Eastern Roman Emperors and their advisors knew what they had been urged to cognize by Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos ( 905-959 – Eastern Roman Emperor from 913 to 959 ) . Constantine VII was renowned for his abilities as a author and bookman. He gave advice on running the Empire internally and on contending external enemies, besides depicting the imposts and manners of the life of their neighbors and how to turn those to the empire’s advantage, this through his books De Administrando Imperio ( Πρὸς τὸν ἴδιον υἱόν Ῥωμανόν ) , De Ceremoniis ( Περὶ τῆς Βασιλείου Τάξεως ) , De Thematibus ( Περὶ θεμάτων Άνατολῆς καὶ Δύσεως ) , and Vita Basilii ( Βίος Βασιλείου ) .

The Byzantines had concerns in their traffics with their eastern, Muslim neighbors, who had long ruled over the lost Byzantine states of Syria, Palestine and Egypt. There are plentifulness of cases of the Byzantines contending acrimonious wars against the Muslim powers of the part, whether the Hamdanid emirate of Aleppo or the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt since it was, after all, portion of the sensed function of the Roman emperor to protect Christians by contending against the heathen. In 975 the emperor John I Tzimiskes ( c. 925 – January 10, 976 - Eastern Roman Emperor from December 11, 969 to January 10, 976 ) had led a run into Syria and Palestine which had reached as far south as Caesarea. This was, nevertheless, no war of conquering: the emperor’s chief concern was to extort big amounts of money from the assailable metropoliss of Syria before retreating back across the frontier. John was besides interested in geting relics to add to the aggregation in the Great Palace and on this juncture returned with the sandals of Christ and portion of the face fungus of St John the Baptist.

The old theological issue of the ‘filioque’ remained unsolved: this was a serious dissension about the relationship among the three individuals of the Trinity. The Latin church argued that the add-on of the term “and from the Son” to the Nicene Creed did non alter its kernel, while the eastern church argued that the difference was cardinal to our apprehension of God. There were besides liturgical and practical affairs such as the issue of a celibate priesthood, fasting on Saturday, and the usage of unraised staff of life ( the alleged azymes ) , all of which were characteristic of the West but non of the East.

Alexios sent a force to deliver the subsisters, and lectured Peter on his folly in disregarding his wise advocate. Komnene’s history is fishy here, in so far as it contradicts her statement elsewhere that Alexios wished above all to forestall the Crusader ground forcess from associating up on the European side. Hindsight is obviously at work excessively, for Komnene is seeking to support Alexios from ulterior accusals that he had betrayed Peter to the Turks. A Western history, the Gesta Francorum, gives a more convincing version of events. No Oklahoman did Peter range Constantinople than his followings started plundering the suburbs, depriving lead from the roofs in order to sell it. It was hence Alexios who, non unreasonably, insisted that they be ferried across to the opposite shore of the Bosporus. The safety of Constantinople took precedency over that of Peter and his undisciplined ground forces.

Each of the Crusader leaders was required to curse an curse, described by Anna Komnene as ‘the customary curse of the Latins’ . This contained an project to manus over to Alexios any captured towns which had antecedently belonged to the imperium. When all had complied with this demand, the tone of the response changed dramatically. Alexios handed out generous measures of gold, Ag and dearly-won cloths as a mark of his blessing, make fulling an full room of the Kosmidion with nowadayss for Bohemond I ( the Norman Prince of Taranto, c. 1058 – 3 March 1111 ) , one of the leaders of the first Crusade. In add-on, honorary rank of the imperial household appears to hold been granted to some of the leaders, who were adopted as Alexios’s boies.

This victory did non nevertheless stop the Crusaders’ ordeal. When the outer metropolis was overrun, the Turkish fort took safety in the bastion which towers some 300 meters above it. There they held out, while the reaching of a big alleviation force under the bid of Kerbogha, atabeg of Mosul, meant that the Westerners were themselves now besieged in Antioch and to a great extent outnumbered by their Moslem oppositions. The deficit of nutrient became despairing during the besieging. There was one hope left: that the emperor Alexios would come with his ground forces to alleviate them. News of these events reached Constantinople and, harmonizing to Anna Komnene, Alexios ‘was much concerned to convey aid personally’ to the Crusaders.

When Alexios’s envoys eventually arrived at Antioch the undermentioned spring, they unsuccessfully demanded that the metropolis be handed over. All they could make was kick bitterly about Bohemond. Standing before Godfrey of Bouillon ( 18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100 ) , Raymond IV, count of Toulouse ( c. 1041–1105 ) and the other leaders, they declared that by busying Antioch, Bohemond had broken the understanding to return all captured towns and metropoliss to the emperor. They received small sympathy. The leaders objected that it had been Alexios who had broken the curse, by neglecting to follow instantly with a big ground forces and by excluding to direct commissariats.

The great expedition to the East was now quickly traveling to its climax.The Crusadurs under the bid of Raymond IV drew nigh to its ultimate end, the holy metropolis of Jerusalem. After neglecting to capture the fortress at Arqa, the Crusaders moved south during May 1099 foremost to Tripoli and so to Caesarea. On 7 June 1099 the ground forces found itself before the walls of Jerusalem. In the onslaught that followed on 15 July 1099, two knights from Tournai who were portion of Godfrey of Bouillon’s contingent succeeded in deriving a bridgehead on the walls by jumping across from a wooden besieging tower. This opened the manner for the Crusaders to pour in. On Christmas Day, 1100, Baldwin I of Boulogne ( 1058? – 2 April 1118 ) was crowned as King of Jerusalem and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.

It is impossible to cognize how the intelligence of the autumn of Jerusalem was received in Constantinople. One suspects that it was non greeted with joy as some extraordinary Christian victory. Anna Komnene devotes merely a few lines to it and disapprovingly noted that ‘many Saracens and Jews in the metropolis were massacred’ . Komnene’s deficiency of involvement in the autumn of Jerusalem besides reflected the Byzantine court’s compulsion with the loss of Antioch. Her letdown at the result of the First Crusade is hence rather apprehensible. Although portion of Asia Minor had been restored to imperial regulation, its most of import metropolis had been was in control of they Latins. In the terminal a pact was drawn up in 1108 in which Bohemond was left in control of Antioch, but he recognized that he held it as vassal of Alexios and his replacement John II Komnenos.

The business of Jerusalem and Antioch by the Crusaders about instantly had a negative impact on Byzantine influence and prestigiousness. Consecutive Byzantine emperors had been able to negociate with Muslim powers so that they had influence in assignments of patriarchs of Jerusalem and Antioch. In 1099, the patriarch of Jerusalem was Symeon II but he had been shacking for some clip on the Byzantine island of Cyprus because of the unsettled conditions in his see. To supply for the disposal of the Church of Jerusalem, the clergy with the Crusade elected one of their figure, Arnulf of Chocques as Chancellor of the Exchequer. The office of patriarch staying vacant for the clip being. By December, nevertheless, the Crusade leaders, mostly at Bohemond’s motivating, decided to name a patriarch of their ain, Daimbert, the Latin archbishop of Pisa. In Antioch, Bohemond had installed Bernard of Valence, besides a Latin churchman.

Alexios died on 15 August in Constantinople. His replacement and eldest boy John II Komnenos ( 1087-1143 ; Eastern Roman Emperor from 1118-1143 ) , was a adult male unusually similar to his male parent. He excessively was an able soldier and general and similar Alexios he cultivated an aura of strict, even puritanical morality. Above all, John was to retrieve that his office was an hereditary heritage, the gift of God entirely. It was hence incumbent on John II to coerce acknowledgment of imperial authorization on the swayers of Antioch and to resuscitate Byzantine claims to the associated state of the Holy Places in Jerusalem. This was in complete contrast with the Latin compulsion with physical ownership and domination.

Despite this disconnected stoping, both John’s expeditions to Syria and his general policy towards the Latin provinces appeared to coevalss to hold been a success. An oration delivered by his medical teacher Michael Italikos ( 1136–66 ) , shortly after John returned to Constantinople in 1138, gives an penetration into the political orientation of those who surrounded his throne. Summarizing up the accomplishment of John in the East, Italikos claimed that the prince of Edessa had offered him the aid of his spear, the male monarch of Jerusalem had set down his Crown and recognized John as the lone emperor, and the sovereignty of Constantinople had been extended over Antioch.

The Norman swayer and male monarch of Sicily, Roger II ( 22 December 1095– 26 February 1154 ) , did non take part in the 2nd Crusade. However in the fall of 1147, at the very clip that the Second Crusade was go throughing through Byzantine district, he launched an onslaught across the Adriatic. His fleet occupied the Byzantine island of Corfu, and so sailed up the Gulf of Corinth to bust the comfortable towns of Corinth and Thebes. Roger’s action did much to raise tenseness in Constantinople, so Manuel’s policy involved a mixture of military action, diplomatic negotiations and playing one group off against another. For this the Byzantines acquired a bad name, but it is difficult to see what else they could make.

The Crusaders arrived rapidly, the German contingent making Constantinople in 1147. Manuel was really leery of Conrad’s military purpose, even though Conrad was the brother-in-law of the emperor’s married woman, Bertha of Sulzbac. He rapidly shipped the westerners over to Asia Minor. Although the Crusaders expected resistance merely when they reached the Holy Land, they instantly met the armed opposition of the Turks settled in Asia Mino. The Germans were defeated and their ground forces turned back toward Constantinople, where they met up with the Gallic contingent at Nicaea. From this point on, the Gallic took the enterprise and Manuel arranged to hold a fleet carry most of the ground forces to Antioch, therefore short-circuiting all of Asia Minor. Conrad returned to Constantinople, where he was heartily greeted by the emperor. An understanding was made whereby the balance of the German ground forces, minus the emperor, was sent in Byzantine ships to Acre Once in the Holy Land. The leftovers of the fighting ground forces met with blue failure and the Second Crusade accomplished nil.

Finally, Manuel was able to keep his influence in Antioch. He achieved this partially by a matrimony confederation. In 1162, after the decease of his first married woman Bertha of Sulzbach, he married Maria, one of the girls of Raymond of Poitiers and the sister of the immature Bohemond III. He besides put Bohemond III in his debt by paying his ransom of 100,000 dinars after the prince had been captured by Nur ed-Din at the Battle of Harim in 1164. In return, Manuel was eventually able to implement the reinstatement of the Byzantine patriarch of Antioch, Athanasius I. The Latin patriarch, Aimery of Limoges, was sent off to populate in a nearby small town and Athanasius henceforth presided in the cathedral of St Peter.

Much the same can be said about Manuel’s policy towards the land of Jerusalem between 1158 and 1180. The old aim of procuring acknowledgment of the emperor’s care of the Holy Places was cardinal to Manuel’s docket. His traffics with the land of Jerusalem began in 1157 when King Baldwin III sent a deputation to Constantinople to bespeak a Byzantine princess as his married woman. Baldwin was non defeated. The embassadors returned with 13-year-old Theodora, the girl of Manuel’s brother Isaac whom he had ousted from the sequence in 1143. Along with Theodora came 100,000 gold pieces for her dowery, an excess 10,000 for matrimony disbursals, and diverse gems and silk garments which William of Tyre reckoned as being worth a farther 14,000 gold pieces.

Cardinal to Manuel’s understanding with the male monarchs of Jerusalem was public acknowledgment of the emperor’s function as the defender of the Holy Places. Like his predecessors of the 11th century in their dialogues with the Fatimids, Manuel secured the right to take part in the rebuilding and ornament of the basilicas and monasteries in the Holy Land, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. There he paid for the shelf on which Christ’s organic structure had allegedly been laid after the crucifixion to be covered in gold, presumptively to do up for the loss of its marble slab that was now in Constantinople. From the reign of Amalric, Byzantine clergy were allowed to execute the Holy Eucharist in Grecian every twenty-four hours at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Despite the many Latins at tribunal and in the Byzantine ground forcess, and the Western influences that were evident in Constantinople, tensenesss rose between Byzantines and Latins. In the last decennaries of the 12th century Byzantine authors frequently criticised Latin ways and Latin behavior, while the Latins in bend suspected Byzantium and envied it for its legendary wealth. In 1171 Manuel expelled all Venetians from the imperium, thereby supplying ready land for bitterness. The Doge of Venice was one of the leaders of the Fourth Crusade, and harmonizing to Niketas Choniates he was determined to hold retaliation over the Byzantines.

Manuel I had been married twice, foremost ( as we have seen ) to Bertha of Sulzbach and, after her decease, to Maria of Antioch, the girl of Raymond of Poitiers, in 1161. Whel Manual died in 1188 their boy Alexios II was merely 12 old ages old. Maria assumed the regency, choosing as her agent Alexios Komnenos, a nephew of Manuel I. Maria remained unpopular in Constantinople, in portion because of her western understandings. There were several unsuccessful efforts to subvert the government, led mostly by dissatisfied members of the Komnenan household. Ultimately the throne was seized by Andronicus I Komnenos ( Eastern Roman Emperor from 1183 to 1185 ) , a cousin of Manuel I and his antonym in many ways. While Manuel had supported the military nobility and a pro-western policy, Andronikos was an enemy of the nobility and strongly opposed a policy based on good dealingss with the western powers. His rebellion, in 1181, gained strength rapidly and Andronikos entered Constantinople in victory. He arranged for the imprisonment or executing of his challengers, and was crowned co-emperor along with immature Alexios II in September 1183.

In the months that followed, Andronicus, who a life-time of dirt and adventuresome feats behind him, did precisely that, immersing into an binge of political force that analogues Shakespeare’s Richard III and liquidated his political oppositions, existent or imagined, with barbarous efficiency. The empress and trustee, Maria of Antioch, was strangled, and her memory obliterated. Andronicus had all images of her in public topographic points replaced with his ain portrayal. He had no purpose of saving even those members of the imperial household who had opposed the regency and supported his coup d'etat. Maria the Porphyrogenita and Renier of Montferrat were both murdered within a few months, likely poisoned. The immature Alexios II was foremost sidelined when Andronicus was proclaimed emperor in September 1183. Shortly afterwards, the male child disappeared cryptically.

As the executings grew of all time more frequent, one person was driven to a despairing act of rebellion. When a group of confederates was sent to collar a immature Lord called Isaac Angelos, a relation of the Komnenos household who was suspected of plotting against Andronicus, Isaac at first hid in his house, while his chasers prowled around the courtyard outside. Reasoning that he was likely to decease anyhow, Isaac crept to the stallss, leapt onto a Equus caballus and charged out and galloped across the metropolis to Hagia Sophia to take sanctuary. News of his exploit shortly spread, and Angelos found himself the Centre of popular presentations against Andronicus. Fearing for his life as his military personnels lost control of the metropolis to the manic rabble, Andronicus left Constantinople by ship. Unfortunately, a contrary air current prevented the ship from doing much advancement up the Bosporus before the chasers arrived. Andronicus was taken captive and dragged back to Constantinople. Hauled into the Hippodrome, the former emperor was lynched by the crowd, no uncertainty composed of many of the same people who had welcomed him so enthusiastically less than four old ages earlier.

When a conflict, know as the the batlle of Hattin was fought on 4 July 1187, the Christian ground forces, enduring acutely from thirst and heat exhaustion, proved no lucifer for Saladin’s military personnels. By the terminal of the twenty-four hours, Guy of Lusignan, King of of the Crusader province of Jerusalem, and most of his prima Lords had been taken confined. The relic of the True Cross which had accompanied the Latin ground forces into conflict fell besides in Muslim custodies. Reynald of Châtillon, the old antagonist of Manuel I, was among the captives, but he was fleetly executed by Saladin himself. All the Templar and Hospitaller captives suffered the same destiny at the custodies of Sufi holy work forces. Having wiped out the chief resistance, in the months that followed Saladin was able to capture the palaces and towns whose forts had been with the Christian ground forces at Hattin, including the ports of Acre and Ascalon. By September he had occupied the full seashore South of Tripoli and was ready to travel against Jerusalem itself. After a short besieging, the metropolis surrendered on 2 October 1187, conveying to an terminal the Latin business that had lasted for 88 old ages.

Rumors were go arounding that the Byzantine emperor Isaac II had entered into a pact with Saladin to forestall a Campaign from change by reversaling the licking at Hattin. Many modern observers, while rejecting the sensational elements, have accepted the general tenor of the Western version of events, and have asserted that a military confederation existed between Isaac II and Saladin to get the better of the Third Crusade and to forestall it from retrieving Jerusalem. In fact, no such confederation existed in a formal sense. Isaac II and his advisors were simply prosecuting the traditional foreign policy ends by tested and tried agencies. It was merely that in the West, thanks to the events of Andronicus I’s reign, those policies were now necessarily interpreted as collusion with the enemy.

In the events that led to the Fourth Crusade, the personalities of Pope Innocent III ( Pope from 8 January 1198 to 16 July 1216 ) and the Venetian doge from from 1192 until 1205, Enrico Dandalo, were paramount, but it is unreasonable to state that the whole thing was a secret plan, antecedently thought out. Surely, all the elements were in topographic point for an onslaught on Byzantium, and many westerners, particularly the Normans and some of the Venetians, had openly talked about the conquering of Constantinople. Mutual ill will, greed, and the failing of Byzantium were the chief factors behind the events, but specific fortunes brought about the existent conquering of Constantinople.

“Even though, from the clip of Manuel, your predecessor of honoured memory, the imperium of Constantinople has non deserved such as we ought to hold effected because it has ever answered us and our predecessors with words and non backed them up with workss, however we have set a policy of continuing in a spirit of clemency and gradualness, believing that, when you have considered the favor of how much we have done for you, you ought all the more rapidly to rectify what has therefore far been less providentially neglected by you and your predecessors. For you ought most zealously to go to to this as human energy allows so that you might be able to snuff out or feed the fire in distant parts lest it be able in some step to make all the manner to your territories.”

If the emperor attempted to hinder the Crusaders’ journey, as had his predecessors, military action would be justified. Innocent was non pressing a all-out assault on Constantinople. He insisted that he was non permiting rape but ‘tolerating what, in the face of sedate necessity, can non be avoided without serious loss’ . His purpose was clearly to pull out aid and church brotherhood from Alexios III, and he likely believed that this couldn’t be done without resort to force. That would surely explicate why, in June 1203, Innocent warned the Crusade leaders that neither the split nor the trespass of Alexios III gave them any justification for step ining in the Byzantine imperium.

At some point, he went to Rome, but he was unable to involvement Innocent III in his cause. He had more luck as he travelled through northern Italy, where the ground forces of the Fourth Crusade was piecing at Venice under its late elected leader Boniface of Montferrat ( c. 1150 – 4 September 1207 ) . Stoping at Verona, Prince Alexios met members of the ground forces en path for Venice. His comrades advised him that this force might be able to assist him against his uncle. Alexios hence made an attack to Boniface and the other leaders, who were highly interested in what he had to state. The message was sent back: ‘If your immature Godhead will hold to assist us reconquer Jerusalem, we in our bend will assist him recover his empire.’

The demand for Byzantine wealth was all the greater because the Fourth Crusade had been plagued by deficit of finance from the really get downing. The lone Western power which possessed ships in the needed Numberss was Venice. In April 1201, Geoffrey of Villehardouin ( 1160– c. 1212, ) marshal of Champagne, and five other minister plenipotentiaries negotiated a pact with the doge, Enrico Dandolo. In return for the amount of 85.000 Markss, Venice would supply conveyance for 4.500 knights and their Equus caballuss, 9.000 squires and 20.000 pes soldiers to Egypt, the original finish of the Fourth Crusade. The job was that, when the ground forces arrived at Venice, its Numberss amounted to merely a 3rd of the projected force. Since it had been agreed that each soldier would pay for his ain transition, the Crusaders found themselves 3.,000 Markss short of the amount they had promised.

It was at this point that the proposal to deviate the Campaign from Egypt to Constantinople foremost emerged publically. In January 1203, some minister plenipotentiaries sent by Philip of Swabia arrived in Zara, conveying a message on behalf of Alexios Angelos. Prince Alexios promised that, if the Crusaders’ fleet would attach to him to Constantinople and reconstruct Isaac II to the throne, Alexios would see to it that the split was brought to an terminal and the Byzantine Church placed under the authorization of the Catholic Pope. Of more immediate involvement, he promised that he would alleviate the current fiscal crisis by passing over 200.000 Ag Markss and supplying ample supplies for every adult male in the ground forces.

The defect in Alexios III’s inactive scheme was now exposed. Isaac’s first move was to direct couriers to the Latin cantonment, to cite his boy to fall in him in Constantinople so that he could be crowned as co-emperor Alexios IV Angelos ( Eastern Roman Emperor from August 1203 to January 1204 ) . With the Byzantine imperium under the regulation by two compliant emperors, it could now get down to play the function that it was ever supposed to hold done: take a taking portion in the attempt to recapture Jerusalem. Once the alteration of government was confirmed, a deputation was sent by the Crusade leaders to remind Isaac II and Alexios IV Angelos of the promise made at Zara to set the imperium under the ecclesiastical legal power of Rome, to pay 200.000 Ag Markss to the ground forces along with a year’s supply of commissariats to work forces of all ranks, and to supply military personnels to garrison the Holy Land.

The onslaught began early on Friday 9 April 1204 but contrary air currents drove the ships back and prevented them from acquiring near to the wall. A 2nd assault was launched on 13 April 1204 and this clip a stiff zephyr drove the ships onto the southern shore of the Golden Horn and allowed the Latins to take several towers of the Sea Walls. That should non needfully hold delivered triumph to the Reformers but one time the defense mechanisms had been breached, the contending seems to hold come to an disconnected terminal. The leaders had expected at least a month of street contending to give them control of the metropolis, but they shortly realized, to their astonishment, that no opposition at all was to be offered. Far from salvaging the metropolis, Alexios V followed in the footfalls of Alexios III and fled.

The Byzantine Empire, or more right the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuance of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital metropolis was Constantinople. Both `` Byzantine Empire '' and `` Eastern Roman Empire '' are historiographical footings created after the terminal of the kingdom. Its citizens continued to mention to their imperium as the Roman Empire ( Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων ; Latin: Imperium Romanum ) , or Romania ( Ῥωμανία ) , and to themselves as `` Romans '' .From this came the term Rum, used for the Byzantine imperium in Arabic and Turkish beginnings, and Rumis for the Grecian Christian population under the Ottomans. Similarly, Romios was used to denote a Grecian until, with the development of the modern Greek province, it came to be replaced by `Hellene ' .

Fourth Crusade Packet - The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of.

Unformatted text prevue: The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople of 1204 Collected Sources 1. Robert de Clari: The Capture of Constantinople... ... page 1 II. Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople ( 1204 ) ... ..page 5 III. Gunther: Abbott Martin and the Sack of Constantinople..page 7 IV. Pope Innocent III: Rebuke of Papal Legate... ... .page 9 V. Analysis: Farewell to the Fourth Crusade... ... ... .page 11 By Uwe Siemon-Netto -- UPI Religious Affairs Editor I. Robert de Clari: The Capture of Constantinople w» ~¢ . : : < , : : :e: :mem¢me: \x\“«w~ : MVA/r/IWM.4nWflAM»o»\W//A¢4¢»\W/mm\\x\W/l///nm > Mv‘w’mvdlll/mmm‘bxfififi '' 133mm331:1? Kfivxfi’x... .\.‘«\Vmu m The two major western beginnings for the Fourth Crusade are Villehardouin’s history and that of Robert de Clari. Villehardouin was portion of the leading of the Crusade, while de Clari was a much lower degree knight. The texts here are taken from D. C. Munro’s aggregation of beginnings on the Fourth Crusade. 1. The reformers unable to pay the Venetians. Robert de Clari: La Prise de Constantinople, xi and xii, in Hopf: Chroniques Gre’co-Romanes, pp. 7-9. Old Gallic. XI.. While the pilgrims were remaining on the island of St. Nicholas the doge of Venice and the Venetians went to talk to them and demanded the wage for the naval forces which had been prepared. And the doge said to them that they had acted wrongly in commanding through their couriers that vass should be prepared for 4,000 knights and their equipment, and for 1000,000 foot- soldiers. Of these 4,000 knights, there were non more than 1,000 present, for the others had gone to other ports. And of these 100,000 foot—soldiers at that place were non more than 50,000 or 60,000. `` However, '' said the bash Ge, `` we want you to pay us the amount which you promised. '' When the reformers heard this, they debated and arranged that each knight should pay four Markss and four Markss for each Equus caballus, and each esquire two Markss ; and those who paid less, should pay one grade. When they collected this money, they paid it to the Venetians. But 5 0,000 Markss still remained due. When the doge and the Venetians saw that the pilgrims bad non paid more, they were all so indignant that the doge said to the pilgrims: `` My Godheads, you have imposed upon us disgracefully. For, every bit shortly as your couriers had made the understanding with me and my people, I issued orders throughout my whole land that no merchandiser should set about a ocean trip, but all were to help in fixing this fleet. They have been waiting of all time since and have gained nil for the last twelvemonth and a half ; and, consequently, they have lost much. Therefore my work forces and I want you to pay us the money which you owe us. if you do non pay us, you shall non go forth this island before we get our money ; and no one shall convey you anything to eat or imbibe. '' The doge, nevertheless, was a really first-class adult male and did non forestall the people from conveying adequate nutrient and drink. Twelve. When the count and the reformers heard what the doge said they were much troubled and grieved. They made another aggregation and borrowed all the money they could from those who were thought to hold any. They paid it all to the Venetians, but after this payment 36,000 Markss still remained due. They said to the Venetians that they had been imposed upon ; that the ground forces was greatly impoverished by this last aggregation ; that they could non pay any more money at all, for they had barely plenty to back up the ground forces. When the doge perceived that they could non pay all the money and that they were in sore passs, he said to his people: `` Sirs, if we let these people go back to their ain state, we shall ever be considered base and slippery. Let us travel to them and state that, if they are willing to pay us the 36,000 Markss which they owe us out of their portion of the first conquerings which we make, we will transport them across the sea. '' The Venetians were good pleased with the doge 's proposition. Consequently, they went to the cantonment of the pilgrims. When they came there, the doge said to the reformers: `` Sires, we have agreeed, I and my people, that if you are willing to vouch dependably to pay us the 36,000 Markss, which you owe us, out of your portion of the first conquerings, we will transport you across the sea. '' When the reformers heard what the bash Ges proposed they were really glad and fell at his pess for joy. They bound themselves really volitionally to make dependably what the doge had proposed. They were so joyous that dark that there was no 1 so hapless that he did non do a great light, and each one carried great torches made of tapers on the terminal of his spear, both outside of the cantonment and indoors, so that the whole ground forces seemed drunk. 2. The new understanding with the Venetians Robert de Clari, xiii, in Hopf: Chroniques, p. 9. Old Gallic. Afterwards the doge came to the ground forces and said: `` Sirs, it is now winter, we can non traverse the sea, nor does this depend upon me. For I would hold had you cross already, if it had non depended upon you. But allow us make the best we can. There is a metropolis near here, named Zara. The people of this metropolis have done us much immorality, and I and my work forces want to penalize them, if we can. If you will take my advice, we will travel at that place this winter and remain until Easter. Then we will do ready our navy and travel to Outremer at Lady— twenty-four hours. The metropolis of Zara is really rich and good supplied with all sorts of commissariats. '' The barons and the Lords among the reformers agreed to what the bash Ge proposed. But no 1 in the ground forces knew this program, except the leaders. 3. The biddings to Alexis. Robert de Clari, xvi-xvii, in Hopf: Chroniques, pp. 11—12. Old Gallic. Sixteen. In the interim the reformers and the Venetians remained at Zara during the winter. They considered how great the disbursal had been and said to one another that they could non travel to Babylon or Alexandria or Syria: for they had neither commissariats nor money for the journey. They had already used up everything they had, either during the visit that they had made or in the great monetary value that they had paid for the vass. They said that they could non travel and, even if they should travel, they would carry through nil ; they had neither commissariats nor money sufficient to back up them. Seventeen. The doge of Venice saw clearly that the pilgrims were badly at ‘t easiness. He addressed them, stating: `` Sirs, Greece is a really rich land, and bounteously supplied with everything. If we can find a sufficient alibi for traveling at that place and taking nutrient and other things, so as to recover ourselves, it would look to me advisable, and so we could easy travel across the sea. '' Then the Marquis [ Boniface of Montserat, the leader of the campaigns ] H rose and said: `` Sir, I was in Germany at the emperor 's tribunal last Christmas. There I saw a immature adult male who was the emperor‘s brother in jurisprudence. [ Alexis IV, brother of Queen Irene ] This immature adult male was the boy of the emperor Kyrsac [ i.e. Kyr ( Lord ) Isaac II Angelos ] of Constantinople from whom his brother had taken the imperium of Constantinople by lese majesty. Whoever could acquire this immature adult male, '' said the Marquis, `` could surely travel to the land of Constantinople and take commissariats and other things ; for this immature adult male is the rightful inheritor. '' 4. The treatment after the reaching of Alexis Robert de Clari, xxxiii, in Hopf: Chroniques, p. 24. Old French. Then all the barons of the ground forces and the Venetians were summoned. When they had all assembled, the doge of Venice rose and said Ts them: `` My Godheads, we have now a sufficient alibi for traveling t Constantinople, if you think it wise, for we have the lawful inheritor. '' Now some who did non desire to travel to Constantinople, spoke therefore: `` Bah! what are we traveling to make at Constantinople? We have our pilgrim's journey to do and mean to travel to Babylon or Alexandria. Our ships are rented for merely one twelvemonth and the twelvemonth is already half over. '' The others said in answer: `` What are we traveling to make at Babylon or Alexandria, since we have neither commissariats nor money sufficiency to travel? It is better to travel where we have a sufficient alibi for obtaining money and commissariats by conquering, than to travel where we shall decease of hungriness. Then we can make it, and he offers to travel with us and to pay for our ships and our naval forces another twelvemonth at his ain disbursal. '' An the Marquis of Montferrat did all in his power to press our traveling to Constantinople, because he wished to take retribution for a incorrect which the emperor of Constantinople had done him. 5. Troubles with Alexius: The first payment. Robert de Clari, Ivi, in Hopf: Chroniques, pp. 46-47— Old French. Afterwards all the barons assembled one twenty-four hours at the castle of the emperor [ Alexius — the reformers seldom speak of Isaac as emperor ] and demanded of him their wage. He replied that he would pay them, but he wished first to be crowned. Consequently they made readyings and put a twenty-four hours for the enthronement. On that twenty-four hours he was crowned emperor with due ceremonial, with the consent of his male parent, who volitionally granted it. After he had been crowned the barons demanded their wage. He said he would really volitionally pay what he could and at that clip he paid 100,000 Markss. Of this sum the Venetians - received one—half ; for they were to have one—half of the conquerings. Of the 50,000 which remained, 36,000, which the Franks still owed for the vass, were paid to the Venetians. And all those who had advanced money to pay for the transition were paid out of the 14,000 Markss which the pilgrims had left. 6. The Doge 's menace Robert de Clari, lix, in Hopf: Chroniques, pp. 48-49. Old Gallic. At these words the barons left the castle and returned to their cantonment. After returning they deliberated upon the class to follow. Meanwhile they sent two knights to the emperor and demanded once more that he should pay them. He replied to the couriers that he would pay nil, he had already paid excessively much, and that he was non afraid of any 1. He besides commanded them to travel off and go forth his land ; they were to understand that if they did non go, he would wound them. Then the couriers went back and told the barons the emperor 's answer. When the barons heard this, they deliberated as to what they should make. The bash Ge said that he wanted to talk to the emperor. He sent a courier to demand that the emperor should come to the seaport to talk to him. The emperor went on horseback. The do Ges prepared four armed galleys ; he went in one and took the other three for protection. When he was near the shore he saw the emperor who had come on horseback. He addressed the latter as follows: `` Alexis, what do you believe you are traveling to make? Remember we have raised you from a really low estate. We have made you lord and you non maintain your understanding with us and crowned you emperor. Wiill you non maintain you understanding with us and will you non make more? '' `` No, '' replied the emperor, `` I will non make anything more. '' `` No? '' said the doge, `` wretched male child, we have raised you from the quag, ’ and we will throw you into the quag once more and be certain that I will make you all the hurt that I can, from this clip on. '' 7. The discourses before the final onslaught on Constantinople. Robert de Clari, ch. lleiii-Xxiii, in Hopf: Chroniques, pp. 57-58. Old Gallic. LXXII. When the pilgrims saw this, they were really angry and grieved much ; they went back from the other side of the seaport to their diggingss. When the barons had returned and had gotten ashore, they assembled and were much amazed, and said that it was on history of their wickednesss that they did non win in anything and could non capture the metropolis. Meanwhile the bishops and the clergy in the ground forces debated and decided that the war was a righteous one, and T they surely ought to assail the Greeks. For once the dwellers of the metropolis had been obedient to the jurisprudence of Rome and now the were disobedient, since they said that the jurisprudence of Rome was of n history, and called all who believed in it `` Canis familiariss. '' And the bishop said that for this ground one ought surely to assail them, an that it was non a wickedness, but an act of great charity. LXXIII. Then it was announced to all the host that all the Venetian and every one else should travel and hear the discourses on Sunday forenoon ; and they did so. Then the bishops preached to the ground forces, the bishop of Soissons, the bishop of Troyes, the bishop of Havestaist maestro Jean Faicette, and the archimandrite of Loos, and they showed to the pilgrims that the war was a righteous one ; for the Greeks were treasonists and liquidators, and besides disloyal, since they had murdered their rightful Godhead, and were worse than Jews. Furthermore, the bishops said that, by the authorization of God and in the name of the Catholic Pope, they would shrive all who attacked the Greeks. Then the bishops commanded the pilgrims to squeal their wickednesss and have the Communion piously ; and said thatgthey ought non to waver to assail the Greeks, for the latter were enemies of God. They besides commanded that all the evil adult females should be sought out and direct off from the ground forces to a distant topographic point. This was done ; the evil adult females were all put on a vas and were sent really far off from the ground forces. II. Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople ( 1204 ) Waive/am, mmmfixmemMewv/Wn'WWIWWV V//A < 1fi1¢m: & : R: :« < wm < .cn'71! ! M. : > mw0 < ww ( xz/lmm4. : \\\\\\\WMM/mum, , > , > > WWM4L Mymmmw wmmwmg.mzmmxxwx/mwwa, Wwamxmmmmmwm.i, ,sszmmmW/mmm.a“a. The Fourth Crusade was directed at Egypt. There were, nevertheless, a series of financial difi‘iculties which enabled the Venetians, who had been hired as transit suppliers, to deviate the campaign to their ain terminals. First it attacked the Christian metropolis of Zara, and so Constantinople itself. The consequence was the constitution of a series of Latin provinces in Greece and the Agean, and the lasting prostration of Communion between Catholic and Orthodox Churches. The Byzantine historian Nicetas Choniates here gives an history of the sack of the city.. How shall Ibegin to state of the workss wrought by these villainous work forces! Alas, the images, which ought to hold been adored, were trodden under pes! Alas, the relics of the holy sufferer were thrown into dirty topographic points! Then was se en what one frissons to hear, viz. , the Godhead organic structure and blood of Christ was spilled upon the land or thrown about. They snatched the cherished reliquaries, thrust into their bosoms the decorations which these contained, and used the broken leftovers for pans and imbibing cups, -precursors of Anti-Christ, writers and trumpeters of his villainous workss which we momently expect. Manifestly, so, by that race so, merely as once, Christ was robbed and insulted and His garments were divided by batch ; merely one thing was missing, that His side, pierced bv a spear, should pour rivers of Godhead blood on the land. Nor can the misdemeanor of the Great Church be listened to with composure. For the sacred communion table, formed of Fall sorts of cherished stuffs and admired by the whole universe, was broken into spots and distributed among the soldiers, as was all the other sacred wealth of so great and infinite luster. When the sacred vases and utensils of unsurpassable art and grace and rare stuff, and the fine Ag, wrought with gold, which encircled the screen of the court and the dais, of admirable craft, and the door and many other decorations, were to be borne off as loot, mules and saddled Equus caballuss were led to the really sanctuary of the temple. Some of these which were unable to maintain their terms on the splendid and slippery paving, were stabbed when they fell, so that the sacred paving was polluted with blood and filth. Nay more, a certain prostitute, a Sharer in their guilt, a curate of the rages, a retainer of the devils, a worker of conjurations and toxic conditions, dissing Christ, sat in the patriarch‘s place, singing an obscene vocal and dancing often. Nor, so, were these offenses committed and others left undone, on the land that these were of lesser guilt, the others of greater. But with one consent all the most flagitious wickednesss and offenses were committed by all with equal ardor. Could those, who showed so great lunacy against God Himself, have spared the honest matrons and maidens or the virgins consecrated to God? Nothing was more difficult and arduous than to soften by supplications, to render benevolent, these wroth savages, purging Forth gall at every unpleasing word, so that nil failed to inflame their rage. Whoever attempted it was derided as insane and a adult male of intemperate linguistic communication. Often they drew their stickers against any one ivho opposed them at all or hindered their demands. No 1 was without a portion in the heartache. In the back streets, in the streets, in the temples, ailments, crying, Lamentationss, heartache, the groaning of work forces, the scream of adult females, lesions, colza, imprisonment, the separation of those most closely united. Lords wandered about disgracefully, those of venerable age in cryings, the rich in poorness. Thus it was in the streets, on the corners, in the temple, in the lairs, for no topographic point remained unassailed or defended the petitioners. All topographic points everyplace were filled full of all sorts of offense. Oh, immortal God, how great the afflictions of the work forces, bow great the hurt! trans. by D. C. Munro, Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, Series 1, Vol 3:1 ( rpm. erectile dysfunction. ) ( Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1912 ) , 15—16 III. Gunther: Abbott Martin and the Sack of Constantinople My. tungsten, //////// , ,.» wwmmww w WNWWMW 1. Abbot Martin 's larceny of relics. Gunther: Historia Constantinopolitana, ch. nineteen, in Riant: Exuviae, Vol. 104 ff. Latin. While the masters were quickly looting the conquered metropolis, which was theirs by right of conquering, the archimandrite Martin began to co gitate about his ain portion of the loot, and lest he entirely should stay. unrewarded, while all the others became rich, he resolved to prehend upon loot with his ain sacred sets. But, since he thought it non run into to manage any loot of secular things with those sacred custodies, he began to be after how he might procure some part of the relics of the saints, of which he knew there was a great measure in the metropolis. Consequently, holding a foreboding of some great consequence, he took with him one of his two chaplains and went to a church which was held in great fear because in it the female parent of the most celebrated emperor Manuel had a baronial grave, which seemed of importance to the Greeks, but ours held for nothing. There a really great sum of money brought in from all the environing state was stored, and besides cherished relics which the vain hope of security had caused them to convey in from the adjacent churches and monasteries. Those whom the Greeks had driven out, had told us of this before the gaining control of the metropolis. When many pilgrims broke into this church and some were thirstily engaged in stealing gold and Ag, others cherished rocks, Martin, believing it unbecoming to perpetrate sacrilege except in a sanctum cause, sought a more retired topographic point where the really holiness of the topographic point seemed to assure that what he desired might be found. There he found an elderly adult male of agreeable visage, holding a long and grey face fungus, a priest, but really unlike our priests in his frock. Thinking him a layperson, the archimandrite, though inside unagitated, threatened him with a really fierce voice, stating -. `` Come, perfidious old adult male, demo me the most powerful relics you have, or you shall decease instantly. '' The latter, terrified by the sound instead than the words, since be heard but did non understand what was said, and cognizing that Martin could non talk Greek, began in the Romana tongue, of which he knew a small, to bid Martin and by soft words to turn away the latter 's wrath, which in truth did non be. In answer, the archimandrite succeeded in acquiring out a few words of the same linguistic communication, sufficient to do the old adult male understand what he wanted. The latter, detecting Martin 's face and frock, and believing it more tolerable that a spiritual adult male should manage the sacred relics with fright and fear, than that secular work forces should, perchance, foul them with. their secular custodies, opened a thorax edge with Fe and showed the coveted hoarded wealth, which was more thankful and delighting to Martin than all the royal wealth of Greece. The abbot hurriedly and thirstily push in both custodies and working rapidly, filled with the fruits of the profanation both his ain and his chaplain 's bosom. He sagely concealed what seemed the most valuable and departed without resistance. Furthermore what and how worthy of fear those relics which the sanctum robber appropriated were, is told more to the full at the terminal of this work H When he was rushing to his vas, so stuffed full, if I may utilize the look, those who knew and loved him, saw him from their ships as they were themselves rushing to the loot, `` and inquired gleefully whether he had stolen anything, or with what he was loaded down as he walked. With a joyful visage, as ever, at, with pleasant words he said: `` We have done good. '' To which they replied: `` Thankss be to God. '' 2. List of relies stolen by Abbot Martin. Gunther, ch. twenty-four, in Riant: Exuviae, Vol. 1, p. 120 ff Therefore `` Blessed be the Lord God, who merely doeth fantastic things, '' who in His indefinable kindness and clemency has looked upon and made glorious His church at Paris through certain gifts of His grace, which he deigned to convey to us through the venerable adult male, already so often mentioned, abbot Martin. In the presence of these the church exults and by their protection any psyche faithful to God is aided and assisted. In order that the readers ' trust in these may be strengthened, we have determined to give a partial list. First, of the highest importance and worthy of all fear: A hint of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for salvation of all world. Second, a piece of the cross of our Lord on which the Son of the Father, the new Adam, sacrificed for us, paid the debt of the-told Adam. Third, a non inconsiderable piece of St. John, the precursor of a Lord. Fourth, the arm of St. James, the Apostle, whose memory is venerated by the whole church. Beginning: Dana C. Munro, `` The Fourth Crusade `` , Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, Vol 3:1, ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 189? ) , 1—1 8 IV. Pope Innocent III: Rebuke of Papal Legate an..am > > 1¢ > ¢nnr¢r¢nfi¢s¢rc '' . : wmm.mm.. < . 0:10! fo14iWXVleNVV/CW/Y/Ifi.M‘WM/Il///A¢ > ) WMM\YAWV’ */W’¢ 'WW\ WWW/.Wrxnxx '' : xtttymmnrmrmI: tmtmenz: flmaszx/mes\\\wflwrw.szucfimefirr:1WM»macaammxw/xmesmwwxxk m.Wmmmmmmamm a s » Pope Innocent III was ferocious at the conquering of Constantinople. He wrote the undermentioned missive in choler to the apostolic official emissary. Despite these acrimonious words, there was small that the Pope could make to change what had happened and so, as his initial choler subsided, Innocent first recognized and so embraced the new order in Constantinople. To Peter, Cardinal Priest of the Title of St. Marcellus, Legate of the Apostolic See. We were non a small amazed and disturbed to bear that you and our darling boy the Cardinal Priest of the Title of St. Praxida and Legate of the Apostolic See, in fright of the looming hazards of the Holy Land, have left the state of Jerusalem ( which, at this point is in such great demand ) and that you have gone by ship to Constantinople. And now we see that what we dreaded has occurred and what we feared has come to go through. For you, who ought to hold looked for aid for the Holy Land, you who should hold stirred up others, both by word and by illustration, to help the Holy Land on your ain enterprise you sailed to Greece, conveying in your footfalls riot merely the pilgrims, but even the indigens of the Holy Land who came to Constantinople, following our venerable brother, the Archbishop of Tyre. When you had deserted it, the Holy Land remained destitute of work forces, nothingness of strength. Because of you, its last province was worse than the first, for all its friends deserted with you ; nor was there any supporter to comfort it. We ourselves were non a small agitated and, with ground, we acted against you, since you had fallen in with this advocate and because you had deserted the Land which the Lord consecrated by his presence, the land in which our King wonderfully performed the enigma of our salvation. It was your responsibility to go to to the concern of your legateship and to give careful consideration, non to the gaining control of the Empire of Constantinople, but instead to the defence of what is left of the Holy Land and, with the Lord 's leave, the Restoration of What has been lost. We made you our representative and we sent you to derive, non temporal, but instead ageless wealths. And for this intent, our brethren provided adequately for your demands. We have merely beard and discovered from your letters that you have absolved from their pilgrim's journey vows and their crusading duties all the Crusaders who have remained to support Constantinople from last March to the present. It is impossible non to be moved against you, for you neither should nor could give any such absolution. Whoever suggested such a thing to you and how did they of all time lead your head astray? . How, so, is the Grecian church to be brought back into ecclesiastical brotherhood and to a devotedness for the Apostolic See when she has been beset with so many afflictions and persecutions that she sees in the Latins merely an illustration of Hell and the plants of darkness, so that she now, and with ground, detests the Latins more than Canis familiariss? As for those who were supposed to be seeking the terminals of Jesus Christ, non their ain terminals, whose blades, which they were supposed to utilize against the heathens, are now dripping with Christian blood they have spared neither age nor sex. They have committed incest, criminal conversation, and fornication before the eyes of work forces. They have exposed both matrons and virgins, even those dedicated to God, to the seamy lecherousnesss of male childs. Not satisfied with interrupting open the imperial exchequer and looting the goods of princes and lesser work forces, they besides laid their custodies on the hoarded wealths of the churches and, what is more serious, on their very ownerships. They have even ripped Ag home bases from the communion tables and have hacked them to pieces among themselves. They violated the holy topographic points and have carried off crosses and relies.. Furthermore, under what pretense can we name upon the other Western peoples for assistance to the Holy Land and aid to the Empire of Constantinople? When the Crusaders, holding given up the proposed pilgrim's journey, return absolved to their places ; when those who plundered the aforesaid Empire bend back and come place with their spoils, free of guilt ; will non people so suspect that these things have happened, non because of the offense involved, but because of your title? Let the Lord 's word non be stifled in your oral cavity. Be non like a dense Canis familiaris, unable to bark. Rather, allow them talk these things publically, allow them protest before everyone, so that the more they rebuke you before God and on God‘s history, the more they will find you merely negligent. As for the absolution of the Venetian people being falsely accepted, against ecclesiastical regulations, we will non at present argue with you.. Given July 12 Beginning: Pope Innocent III, Ep 136, Patrologia Latina 215, 669-702, translated by James Brundage, The Campaigns: A Documentary History, ( Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962 ) , 208—09 Copyright note: Professor Brundage informed the Medieval Sourcebook that right of first publication was non renewed on this work. Furthermore he gave permission for usage of his interlingual renditions. These texts ( I—IV ) are portion of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a aggregation of public sphere and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic signifier of the papers is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print signifier for educational intents and personal usage. If you do geminate the papers, indicate the beginning. No permission is granted for commercial usage. © Paul Halsall December 1997 10 V. Analysis: Farewell to the Fourth Crusade by Uwe Siemon-Netto—UPI Religious Affairs Editor WASHINGTON, April 15, 2004 ( UPI ) —— In the face of the modern-day challenge by extremist Islamists, Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism are offering farewell to the hatred caused by the Fourth Crusade precisely 800 old ages ago. The religious leader of the Orthodox faithfiil officially accepted an apology Pope John Paul II offered in 2001 for the three-day bagging of Constantinople in April 1204. The metropolis, until so the wealthiest in Christendom, ne'er recovered from this event, which for good weakened the Greek Empire, a rampart that had protected Europe for centuries against Muslim incursions. `` The spirit of rapprochement is stronger than hatred, '' said Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople during a Holy Eucharist attended by Cardinal Philippe Barbarin, archbishop of Lyon, France, considered to be a possible replacement to the present Catholic Pope. `` We receive with gratitude and esteem your affable gesture for the tragic events of the Fourth Crusade, '' said Bartholomew, the titular caput of Orthodoxy. ' Mentioning to the Easter season, Bartholomew added, `` The spirit of rapprochement of the Resurrection incites us toward rapprochement in Christ. '' Two old ages ago, the Catholic Pope had asked for God 's forgiveness for the `` wickednesss of action and skip '' Catholics had committed against the Orthodox, including the devastation of Constantinople, an event whose inhuman treatments ended all efforts to get the better of the great split between the Western and the Eastern Church 150 old ages before. Much of the Vatican‘s attrition over this abattoir has to make with the shocking bearing of Catholic reverends during the besieging of the centre of Eastern Christianity. The Crusaders were loath to assail fellow Christians, but the clergy convinced them that the Orthodox Byzantines were about every bit bad as the Muslims. They had allied with Saladin against the Third Crusade, and had done nil to help the Second Crusade ; they should be punished for their deficiency of support. During the violent disorder, in which even the Crusaders ' cooks participated have oning their pots as helmets, ancient plants of art were annihilated. The Crusaders returned to Europe brimming with loot, including a freshness for the West —— wallpaper, a Chinese innovation that until so had made its manner to Constantinople, but no farther. `` Between the loot and the fire Constantinople was ravaged so severely that it ne'er recovered, '' writes Ellis `` Skip '' Knox, who teaches history at Boise State University in Idaho. `` It would non return 11 to anything like its former glorification until the Ottomans had conquered it and turned it into a great Muslim metropolis. '' `` Possibly recent events ( intending terrorist Acts of the Apostless by Muslim extremists ) have leant urgency to recent efforts at mending the rift between the Eastern and the West Church, including the Catholic Pope 's apology and now its credence by Bartholomew I, '' Knox suggested in a telephone interview. The Rev. Emmanuel Clapsis, dean of Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology at Brookline, Mass, was even more vocal. `` We have to see to it that the Christian Church reconciles and recovers its broken integrity, '' he told United Press International Thursday. `` That 's the will of Christ. Christianity 's division is a dirt. '' `` The Church must take a breath once more with both lungs, '' said Clapsis, utilizing a term John Paul II had coined during his pilgrim's journey to Greece in 2001. The popes encounter with Greek archpriests went surprisingly good, as did his subsequent meetings with Orthodox archpriests in Syria, the Ukraine and other states. However, the intransigency of the Russian Church has so far proved to be a apparently insurmountable hurdle in the Catholic Pope 's quest for Christian integrity. A recent visit by Cardinal Walter Kasper, the Vatican 's main oecumenic officer, with the Russian hierarchy `` complete nil, '' harmonizing to Claus—Peter Clausen, publishing house of a Catholic newssheet in Germany and a specializer on the tensenesss between Rome and Russian Orthodoxy. The chief obstruction is the being of Catholic `` Uniate '' churches, which are loyal to Rome but have maintained rites are indistinguishable to those of the Orthodox denominations. The uniate have been around since the sixteenth century. `` But with the release of Eastern Europe, their being created unexpected difficulties, '' said Clapsis, one of Orthodoxy 's foremost ecumenists. `` However, I am really optimistic that by God 's grace and our finding we will get the better of these impermanent obstructions, '' he added. `` If we allow God 's grace overcome our human reserves, we can decide jobs even with Russia. '' `` After all, '' he went on, `` both the Holy Father and Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew are committed to the integrity of the Christian Church. '' Could this go on during this pope‘s life-time, which may non be really long any longer? `` This is an active and existent possibility, '' the Greek Orthodox bookman replied. `` Unexpected things may happen -- since we are in the velocity of the Resurrection. '' 12. View Full Document

Redating the East-West Schism: An Examination of the Impact of the Sack of Constantinople in 1204

Introduction: In 1054 A.D. , three papal official emissaries, led by Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, were sent to the metropolis of Constantinople on a compromising mission by Pope Leo IX. The Catholic Pope sent these official emissaries to run into with the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius, in the hope of deciding certain points of dissension between Greek and Latin Christians. However, the visit went ill and, as a consequence, the apostolic official emissaries entered Hagia Sophia one fatal twenty-four hours while the priests were fixing to observe Mass and placed a Bull of Excommunication against Cerularius upon the chief communion table. This discourtesy sparked rioting in the streets of Constantinople and caused the patriarch and his synod to react with a formal bete noire against both the papers itself and all those responsible for its production. It is on history of these events that the consummation of the East-West Schism between Greek and Latin Christianity ( besides known as the Great Schism ) has traditionally been dated to the twelvemonth 1054.

Although 1054 is so the day of the month most frequently found on timelines and in textbooks—and therefore the day of the month most frequently memorized by pupils of the medieval period—the bulk of modern bookmans recognize that the East-West Schism was in fact, as Timothy Ware writes, “something that came about bit by bit, as the consequence of a long and complicated process.” This gradual procedure had already begun long earlier 1054 , propelled by tensenesss between Greek and Latin Christians over issues such as ecclesiastical authorization, philosophy, and liturgy, every bit good as by cultural, economic, and ideological differences. On history of this, trying to day of the month the consummation of the East-West Schism is a really hard project, to state the least.

It is apparent that early in the Middle Ages at that place existed a united Christendom wherein all Christians, both Greeks and Latins, believed themselves to be members of a individual Church. It is besides apparent that subsequently there existed a divided Christendom, with Grecian Christians on one side and Latin Christians on the other—each side claiming to be the one, true Church. Yet although we are cognizant of both these historical worlds, it is far from easy to nail when the relationship between Greek and Latin Christianity shifted from one world to the other. What is evident, nevertheless, is that if we hope for an accurate dating of the consummation of the East-West Schism, we ought non to disregard the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by Western reformers.

The series of events taking up to the sack of Constantinople began when a great ground forces of Latin Christians, late holding set Forth to take part in the Fourth Crusade, was diverted from its ultimate end of reconquering Jerusalem by an prayer for aid from Alexius the Younger ( boy of the late dethroned Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus ) . The reformers responded to this petition in a spirit of good will, holding to go to Constantinople in order to assist Alexius and his male parent Isaac to recover the throne. However, although they were successful, a dissenter courtier strangled Alexius to decease shortly subsequently. The unfortunate slaying of immature Alexius triggered an eruption of contending between the Latin reformers and the citizens of Constantinople, which predictably ended with the reformers suppressing the metropolis. Having emerged winning, the reformers so sacked Constantinople, stealing holy relics, mistreating the public, and, subsequently, audaciously calling both a Latin emperor and a Latin patriarch to keep power in the East.

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Sack of Constantinople ( 1204 )

The sack of Constantinople is a major turning point in mediaeval history and Christianity more by and large. The Crusaders ' determination to assail a major Christian capital was unprecedented and instantly controversial, even among the Crusaders themselves. Relationss between the western and eastern Christian universes were badly wounded and would non to the full retrieve for 100s of old ages afterwards, and the Byzantine Empire became poorer, smaller, and less able to support itself against the Turkish conquerings that followed. The Fourth Crusade therefore left Christendom more divided and weakened than earlier.

Before the besieging

The Massacre of the Latins ( Italian: Massacro dei Latini ; Grecian: Σφαγή τῶν Λατίνων ) , a large-scale slaughter of the Roman Catholic or `` Latin '' dwellers of Constantinople by the Eastern Orthodox population of the metropolis in May 1182, had a dramatic consequence on the split between the Western and Eastern Christian churches. The slaughter besides farther worsened the image of the Byzantines in the eyes of the Western powers, and, although regular trade understandings were shortly resumed between Byzantium and Latin provinces, the implicit in ill will would stay, go forthing many westerners seeking some signifier of retaliation.

On 25 January 1204, the decease of co-Emperor Isaac II set off rioting in Constantinople in which the people deposed Alexios IV, who turned to the Crusaders for aid but was imprisoned by the imperial Chamberlain, Alexios Doukas, who declared himself Emperor on 5 February. Emperor Alexios V so attempted to negociate with the Reformers for a backdown from Byzantine district, but they refused to abandon their old pact with Alexios IV. When Alexios V ordered Alexios IV 's executing on 8 February, the Reformers declared war on Alexios V. In March 1204, the Crusader and Venetian leading decided on the straight-out conquering of Constantinople, and drew up a formal understanding to split the Byzantine Empire between them.

Capture of the metropolis

On 12 April 1204 conditions conditions eventually favoured the Crusaders as the conditions cleared and a 2nd assault on the metropolis was ordered. A strong north air current aided the Venetian ships near the Golden Horn to come near to the metropolis wall, which enabled the aggressors to prehend some of the towers along the wall. After a short conflict about 70 Reformers managed to come in the metropolis. Some Reformers were finally able to strike hard holes in the walls big plenty for a few knights at a clip to creep through ; the Venetians were besides successful at scaling the walls from the sea, although there was highly bloody contending with the Varangians. The Crusaders captured the Blachernae subdivision of the metropolis in the Northwest and used it as a base to assail the remainder of the metropolis, but while trying to support themselves with a wall of fire they ended up firing down even more of the metropolis. Emperor Alexios V fled from the metropolis that dark through the Polyandriou ( Rhegium ) Gate and escaped into the countryside to the West.

Sack of Constantinople

The Crusaders looted, terrorized, and vandalized Constantinople for three yearss, during which many antediluvian and mediaeval Roman and Greek plants were either stolen or destroyed. The celebrated bronze Equus caballuss from the Hippodrome were sent back to decorate the façade of St Mark 's Basilica in Venice, where they remain. Equally good as being stolen, plants of unmeasurable artistic value were destroyed simply for their stuff value. One of the most cherished plants to endure such a destiny was a big bronze statue of Hercules, created by the legendary Lysippos, tribunal sculpturer of Alexander the Great. Like so many other priceless graphicss made of bronze, the statue was melted down for its content by the Crusaders. The great Library of Constantinople was destroyed every bit good.

Despite their curses and the menace of exclusion, the Crusaders consistently violated the metropolis 's holy sanctuaries, destructing or stealing all they could put custodies on ; nil was spared, non even the grave of the emperors inside the St Apostles church. The civilian population of Constantinople were capable to the Crusaders ' ruthless lecherousness for spoils and glorification ; 1000s of them were killed in cold blood. Women, even nuns, were raped by the Crusader ground forces, which besides sacked churches, monasteries and convents. The really communion tables of these churches were smashed and torn to pieces for their gold and marble by the warriors. Although the Venetians engaged in plundering excessively, their actions were far more reticent. Doge Dandolo still appeared to hold far more control over his work forces. Rather than wantonly destructing all around like their companions, the Venetians stole spiritual relics and plants of art, which they would subsequently take to Venice to decorate their ain churches.

Aftermath

Harmonizing to a prearranged pact the imperium was apportioned between Venice and the campaign 's leaders, and the Latin Empire of Constantinople was established. Boniface was non elected as the new emperor, although the citizens seemed to see him as such ; the Venetians thought he had excessively many connexions with the former imperium because of his brother, Renier of Montferrat, who had been married to Maria Comnena, empress in the 1170s and 80s. Alternatively they placed Baldwin of Flanders on the throne. He was crowned Emperor in the Hagia Sophia as Baldwin I of Constantinople. Boniface went on to establish the Kingdom of Thessalonica, a vassal province of the new Latin Empire. The Venetians besides founded the Duchy of the Archipelago in the Aegean Sea.

Bequest

Eight hundred old ages after the Fourth Crusade, Pope John Paul II twice expressed sorrow for the events of the Fourth Crusade. In 2001 he wrote to Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens, stating, `` It is tragic that the attackers, who set out to procure free entree for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their brothers in the religion. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep sorrow. '' In 2004, while Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, was sing the Vatican, John Paul II asked, `` How can we non portion, at a distance of eight centuries, the hurting and disgust? '' This has been regarded as an apology to the Grecian Orthodox Church for the slaughter perpetrated by the warriors of the Fourth Crusade.

In April 2004, in a address on the 800th day of remembrance of the gaining control of the metropolis, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I officially accepted the apology. `` The spirit of rapprochement is stronger than hatred, '' he said during a Holy Eucharist attended by Roman Catholic Archbishop Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, France. `` We receive with gratitude and esteem your affable gesture for the tragic events of the Fourth Crusade. It is a fact that a offense was committed here in the metropolis 800 old ages ago. '' Bartholomew said his credence came in the spirit of Pascha. `` The spirit of rapprochement of the Resurrection. incites us toward rapprochement of our churches. ''

Siege of Constantinople ( 1204 )

On 12 April 1204 the conditions conditions eventually favored the Crusaders. A strong northern air current aided the Venetian ships to come near to the wall. After a short conflict, about 70 reformers managed to come in the metropolis. Some Reformers were finally able to strike hard holes in the walls, little plenty for a few knights at a clip to creep through ; the Venetians were besides successful at scaling the walls from the sea, though there was highly bloody contending with the Varangians. The reformers captured the Blachernae subdivision of the metropolis in the Northwest and used it as a base to assail the remainder of the metropolis, but while trying to support themselves with a wall of fire, they ended up firing down even more of the metropolis. This 2nd fire left 15,000 people homeless. The Crusaders took the metropolis on April 12. The reformers inflicted a atrocious and barbarous bagging on Constantinople for three yearss, during which many antediluvian and mediaeval Roman and Greek plants were either stolen or destroyed. The brilliant Library of Constantinople was destroyed. Despite their curses and the menace of exclusion, the Crusaders ruthlessly and consistently violated the metropolis 's holy sanctuaries, destructing, sullying, or stealing all they could put custodies on ; nil was spared. It was said that the entire sum looted from Constantinople was about 900,000 Ag Markss. The Venetians received 150,000 Ag Markss that was their due, while the Crusaders received 50,000 Ag Markss. A farther 100,000 Ag Markss were divided equally up between the Crusaders and Venetians. The staying 500,000 Ag Markss were in secret kept back by many Crusader knights.

The Sack of Constantinople, April 1204

AS THE MASS of reformers started to loot Constantinople their leaders moved fleetly to procure the metropolis. The first precedence was to take control of the chief imperial abodes, the Bucoleon ( the Great Palace ) and the Blachernae. Boniface of Montferrat instantly rode down to the former and the Gatess opened to him, on status that those inside were spared. Many senior figures from the Byzantine hierarchy had taken shelter in this complex, including members of the assorted imperial households. The haughty Agnes, sister of King Philip of France, was present, along with Margaret, the widow of Isaac Angelos and sister of the male monarch of Hungary. More significantly to the reformers, the castle was packed with hoarded wealth accumulated over centuries of imperial regulation. Villehardouin could barely depict the wealths on show: ‘there was such a shop of cherished things that one could non perchance number them’.1 Boniface left a fort of work forces to keep the castle palace and to guard the luck within.

In the North of the metropolis, Henry of Flanders entered the Blachernae castle on the same footings and he excessively discovered brilliant awards and left work forces to protect the crusaders’ new-found wealth. While the coup d'etat of these two locations seemed comparatively orderly, events elsewhere saw an detonation of greed and force as the reformers found themselves in a treasure-trove of undreamed proportions. Some histories pass over this black and tragic episode in silence: Villehardouin and Robert of Clari, to call but two. Others, such as Gunther of Pairis, supply some startling disclosures but, predictably possibly, it is from two Byzantine authors, Niketas Choniates and Nicholas Mesarites, that the most graphic and lurid descriptions of the sack of Constantinople emerge.

In malice of the crusaders’ pledged understandings to modulate the behavior of the western military personnels, the temptingness of so much loot - and certain tensenesss within the reformer force itself - could non be resisted. Fired by a belief that God was honoring them for contending the impious and homicidal Greeks, the reformers saw their actions as legitimate and justified. The westerners’ lecherousness for wealth drove them to prehend and plunder citizens and metropolis likewise and. in their righteous ardor, they gave small idea to the feelings of those whom they ravaged or the holiness of the topographic points they ransacked. As Baldwin of Flanders chillingly observed: ‘So those who denied us little things have relinquished everything to us by Godhead judgement.’2

The reformers spread into the metropolis like a deathly virus running through the venas of a weak old adult male: they shut down motion and so they ended life. To Niketas they were ‘forerunners of Antichrist, the agents and forerunners of his awaited ungodly deeds’.3Churches were an obvious mark for the westerners and they gathered 100s of magnif icent icons. Cherished reliquaries—containing the remains of saints who had suffered for Christ’s sake—were torn from the communion tables ; the staff of life and vino that signified the organic structure and the blood of Christ were spattered onto the land. Although His side was non pierced by the spear yet one time more watercourses of Divine Blood poured to the earth’ , as Niketas unhappily commented.4 Nicholas Mesarites wrote of:

The Hagia Sophia, Constantinople’s greatest, most glorious edifice and the religious bosom of the Byzantine Empire, was ravaged and defiled. This, above all else, symbolised the prostration of a once-mighty civilization and the reaching of a new, aggressive power that, in the short term at least, cared small for the stateliness of the imperial yesteryear. The high communion table, an extraordinary piece of workmanship made from a blend of cherished metals and fused into one motley object, was divided into pieces so as to honor several different claimants. The religious value of an point was frequently ignored in the face of an overmastering demand to derive loot. It was as if the reformers had the most overwhelming dependence conceivable —a need that could merely be satisfied by gems and cherished metals. Of class, non everything was broken up: a glimpse in the exchequer in St Mark’s in Venice, or a position of the four celebrated Equus caballuss in the cathedral museum at that place, is grounds adequate that some valuables were merely taken whole. 6

Within hours, centuries of cherished offerings were gathered up. It was non merely movable objects that were taken, for the cloth of the Hagia Sophia itself was attacked. For illustration, as the reformers stripped the Ag sheathing from the dais Gatess, the carefully deployed craft of old ages was destroyed. So immense was the draw that the sanctum stealers had to convey battalion animate beings into the edifice. The body waste of mules and buttockss fouled the smooth marble floors of the house of God ; work forces and animals slipped and fell as they struggled to travel their loads off. The pollution of the great church was absolute.

It was non merely the knights and foot-soldiers who seized valuables. Gunther of Pairis gives an amazingly blunt history of the behavior of his superior, Abbot Martin, during the sack of the City.7 After Martin had taken portion in the mission that sought apostolic forgiveness for the besieging of Zara, he had travelled to the Holy Land ( April 1203 ) before rejoining the reformers at Constantinople. When Martin saw everyone enriching themselves, he resolved to get some of the cherished relics for his ain church. With two comrades he hurried towards the monastery of Christ Pantocrator, the brilliant foundation of the Comnenus dynasty that lay in the Centre of Constantinople. In recent months the Greeks had used this as a depository for the wealth of neighboring monasteries, including those lying outside the metropolis walls, in the hope that it would be a topographic point of safety. Knowledge of this hoarded wealth shop was spread to the reformers by those westerners expelled from the metropolis in the hebdomads before it fell, and so it was, from the start, an inevitable mark for the plunderers. Martin headed for the monastery, non, as Gunther assures us, to take gold and Ag, but to happen relics ; he was merely prepared to perpetrate profanation in a sanctum cause. To a modern audience, this may look a slender differentiation, peculiarly given what followed. Ignoring the chief exchequer located in the organic structure of the church, Martin sought out the vestry, the topographic point where the most cherished spiritual objects were kept.

There he found an old adult male with a long white beard—a priest. Gunther asserts that the archimandrite took him to be a layperson, because western monastics were clean-shaven. This may be so, but it is surely surprising that Martin appears non to hold seen a individual Orthodox monastic in his travels in the eastern Mediterranean. In any instance, he roared: ‘Come, traitorous old adult male, demo me the more powerful of the relics you guard. Otherwise, understand that you will be punished instantly with death.’ hile the priest could non understand the precise significance of Martin’s croaky bellows, he obviously registered the message. Shaking with fright, he tried to quiet the archimandrite in the few words of Latin that he could rally. Martin clarified what he was seeking. Gunther claims that the priest realised that the archimandrite was a adult male of faith and reasoned that it was preferred to give up the relics to a adult male of the Church—however violent and intimidating —than to dub whose custodies were stained with blood.

The old adult male led Martin over to an Fe thorax. The priest opened it and the archimandrite gazed in admiration at the spiritual hoarded wealths it contained—a sight more ‘pleasing and more desirable to him than all the wealths in Greece’ . The impulse to prehend these fabulous objects overcame him: ‘The archimandrite avariciously and hastily push in both custodies, and, as he was girded for action, both he and the chaplain filled the creases of their wonts with sacred profanation: Martin likely made some appraisal as to which were the most valuable of the relics, or possibly he communicated with the old priest as to the birthplace of certain pieces. Then, holding taken those things that he believed to be most powerful, the ‘holy robber’ departed. The image of a western archimandrite looming above an ageing Orthodox monastic and endangering him with decease is difficult to see in anything other than a misanthropic visible radiation. Even for Martin, as the being of Gunther’s text shows, there was a demand to explicate these actions. The justification he gave reflected Godhead blessing for the gaining control of Constantinople, encompassed here by the fact that Martin himself shed no blood and that he looked after the relics with great attention.

The archimandrite was concerned to get away from the crowds of plunderers every bit shortly as possible and to hive away his lading. Accompanied by merely one of his chaplains and the old priest, who likely judged that his ain safety was best assured by remaining with this of import figure, Martin got back to his ship and so remained in his quarters waiting for calmer times. While the pandemonium of the initial sack subsided, he venerated the holy objects and likely learned the individuality of even more of them. In the following twenty-four hours or so, the old priest arranged some suited adjustment for Martin and his cortege within the metropolis and so, one time more bearing his secret hoarded wealths, the archimandrite moved to this house where he concealed his award. Possibly Martin was afraid that others might steal such cherished objects, or he may hold worried that they would be discovered and handed over to the general war thorax. In any instance, he continued to care for his aggregation through the summer of 1204.

Bishop Nivelo of Soissons, whose ship had made the first contact with the walls of Constantinople, was shortly directing legion hoarded wealths back to his cathedral church, including the caput of the Protomartyr Stephen, a irritant from the Crown of Thorns and the finger of the Apostle Thomas, which he is said to hold placed in the Lord’s side. Nivello besides rewarded the nuns of the abbey of Our Lady of Battle of the chemin-des-damess with a belt of the Virgin Mary, and to the abbey of St John of Vignes he dispatched the forearm of St John the Baptist. When Nivelo himself returned to northern France in 1205 he took with him the caput of John the Baptist and the caput of the Apostle Thomas, every bit good as two big roods made from the True Cross—an amazing draw that demonstrates Nivelo’s senior status amongst the crusading clergy.8

So much more material must hold gone back to northern Europe than has been recorded. Sometimes it has left a hint, as in the instance of the northern Gallic small town of Longpré-les-Corps-Saints, near Amiens, which derives its name from the relics brought back to the church by the Fourth Crusader Aleames of Fontaines.10 In the bulk of instances, nevertheless, the booty has passed out of sight and was absorbed into the hoarded wealth houses, churches or castles of the West, or was merely melted down at Constantinople and lost for of all time. Some points the Greeks managed to take with them. Robert of Clari wrote that the church of the Blessed Virgin of the Pharos in the Bucoleon castle contained the grave fabric in which Christ was wrapped and which clearly displayed His characteristics. The reformers could hold seen this cherished relic during their visits to the metropolis in the latter half of 1203, but as an object that was easy movable it must hold been spirited away the undermentioned April because, as Robert lamented, no one knew what had become of it.11

The westerners’ aggression found an mercantile establishment in sexual force, excessively. As with so many ground forcess through the ages, the defiling of a defeated enemy’s adult females was both a physical release and another manifestation of triumph. With no attentiveness to their victims’ shrieks, and disregarding the tormented calls of male parents, hubbies or brothers, the reformers forced themselves upon adult females, immature and old, married or inaugural. Niketas asked: ‘Did these lunatics, ramping therefore against the sacred, trim pious matrons and misss of nubile age or those maidens who, holding chosen a life of celibacy, were consecrated to God? 12 Nicholas Mesarites wrote of the westerners ‘tearing kids from female parents and female parents from kids, handling the virgin with wanton shame in holy chapels, sing with fright neither the wrath of God nor the retribution of men’.13

They appropriated houses, turning out the dwellers or taking them captive. Villehardouin’s remark on this was really prosaic: ‘everyone took quarters where they pleased, and there was no deficiency of all right homes in that city’.15 Interestingly, for Robert of Clari, the issue of adjustment was far more dissentious. As a senior member of the campaign hierarchy, Villehardouin must hold been allocated an suitably deluxe castle from the many that existed within Constantinople. From Robert’s far humbler perspective, the leading had chosen to look after its ain demands and to disregard those of the hapless. Robert alleged that the division of the best houses was settled amongst the Lords, without the cognition or understanding of the lesser work forces, and he saw this as a mark of future bad religion and treachery of the common people.16

Niketas Choniates himself fell victim to the reformers and from his narration we get an exceeding penetration into the experiences of an person on the having terminal of the robbery. History is frequently said to be written by the masters ; in medieval times this was particularly true and so, while bearing in head the author’s apprehensible biass, Niketas’s work offers a rare and indicative position. ‘On that genuinely hateful day’ ( 13 April ) , as he competently described it, many of his friends gathered at his house. His chief abode had been destroyed in the fire of late 1203 and this new belongings stood near the Hagia Sophia.

As the reformers spread towards them, Niketas and his comrades saw how they grabbed at people, extorted money and goods or committed assaults. The Greeks had to improvize: portion of the author’s family was a Venetian-born wine-merchant named Dominic and his married woman. This adult male possessed a helmet, armor and arms, which he donned to feign that he had merely taken the house for himself When reformers arrived to take over the belongings, Dominic beat them off, cussing them in their ain linguistic communication and claiming that the house and those inside were already his. Over the following few hours, more and more work forces tried to put claim to the topographic point and Dominic despaired of being able to defy them. During a letup in these events he urged Niketas and his family to go so that the work forces could stay free and the adult females inviolate.

Dominic led the Greeks to the house of another Venetian who had elected to remain in the metropolis despite the recent belligerencies. They did non rest at that place long, but chose to be dragged along by the custodies behind Dominic, as if they were his captives. Soon, nevertheless, the retainers in Niketas’s family melted off to fend for themselves. They left their maestro and his friends to transport on their shoulders the kids who were excessively little to walk and left the author to protect an baby at his ain chest. Niketas’s married woman was to a great extent pregnant and this, of class, added yet another force per unit area to the group. This proud, educated adult male led his cortege about Constantinople for five yearss before accepting that the state of affairs could merely deteriorate further: the reformers continued to deprive the metropolis of all its valuables and to assail its people. Niketas decided that they had to go forth.

On 17 April 1204 they began to do their manner towards the Golden Gate—the site of so many triumphal returns for the emperors of Byzantium in yearss gone by. Now it was the issue point for refugees, driven from their places by the barbaric encroachers. As Niketas and his family moved towards the gate they passed many westerners laden with loot. Sometimes reformers stopped the group to see if they were concealing all right apparels under their dirty adventitias or hiding gold or Ag on their individual. While some of the reformers looked for money, others were more interested in the immature adult females in the party, and Niketas told his female comrades to soil their faces and to walk where the crowd was thickest so as to pull least attending. The little party of Greeks prayed for their safe transition and implored God that they should go through through the Golden Gate unharmed.

At the church of the Martyr Mokios one peculiarly marauding reformer grabbed a immature miss from the thick of the group and started to drag her off, clearly meaning to ravish her. The girl’s male parent, an ripening justice, appealed for clemency, but he was thrust aside. He fell into the clay by the side of the route where he lay naming for person to help his girl. He asked Niketas himself to assist and, in an act of extraordinary bravery, the author chased after the kidnapper, beging him to go forth the miss entirely. From Niketas’s descriptions of the sack of Constantinople 1 might anticipate that his attempts would hold earned him a sticker in the thorax. But such indurate intervention of adult females can non hold been cosmopolitan amongst the westerners because Niketas managed to convert some passing reformers that they should forestall this indignation. So great was his agitation that he even pulled some of them along by the manus to promote them to assist.

They followed the hood back to his diggingss, where he locked the miss inside before turning to confront his chasers. Niketas accused the adult male of disregarding the bids of his leaders—presumably a mention to the curses refering the holiness of adult females taken before the besieging began— and depicted him as ‘braying like a lubricious buttocks at the sight of chaste maidens’ . He so turned to the reformers nearby and challenged them to stay by their ain Torahs and once more he implored them to support the miss. He appealed to the feelings of those who had married womans and girls of their ain and he besides prayed to Christ for aid. His statements shortly struck a chord with his audience and they began to take a firm stand on the girl’s release. Initially the sinner tried to disregard these protests, but he shortly realised that the work forces were lifelessly serious when they threatened to hang him unless he freed her. Finally, reluctantly, he let the miss travel, much to the delectation and alleviation of all, and Niketas and his party hurried off and out of the Golden Gate.

chests of adult females were searched whether a feminine decoration or gold was fastened to the organic structure or hidden in them, hair was unloosed and head-coverings removed, and the homeless and money-less dragged to the land. Lamentation, groaning and sufferings were everyplace. Indecency was perpetrated, if any just object was concealed within the deferrals of the organic structure ; therefore the ill-doers and troublemakers abused nature itself. They slaughtered the new-born, killed prudent, stripped elder adult females, and outraged old ladies. They tortured the monastics, they hit them with their fists and kicked their abdomens, threshing and riping their clergyman organic structures with whips. Mortal blood was spilled on the sanctum communion tables, and on each, in topographic point of the Lamb of God sacrificed for the redemption of the existence, many were dragged like sheep and beheaded, and on the sanctum grave, the deplorable slew the innocent.19

Palm Sunday and so Easter Day brought a brief intermission in the robbery as the reformers gave thanks for the triumph that the Lord had granted them. By this point the majority of the movable loot had been collected and it was clip to portion it out harmonizing to the understanding made the old month. Three churches had been earmarked as depots for all the spoils of war, and 10 Frenchmen and 10 Venetians were set the undertaking of guarding them. Day after twenty-four hours, work forces or carts had drawn up transporting the most unbelievable wealths. Mountains of gold and Ag objects, gems and cherished fabric all arrived at these edifices. The graduated table of the draw was huge and about impossible to convey. Robert of Clari described the volume of loot in heroic poem footings: ‘Not since the universe was made was there of all time seen or won so great a hoarded wealth or so baronial or so rich, non in the clip of Alexander nor in the clip of Charlemagne nor before nor after. Nor do I believe, myself, that in the 40 richest metropoliss of the universe there has been so much wealth as was found in Constantinople.’20

It is apparent, nevertheless, that non all the work forces were scrupulous in subjecting the loot to the common bag. All the curses made beforehand were an indicant that the campaign leaders expected people to keep back loot and to seek to maintain it for themselves. Their frights were to be wholly justified: faced with the sensational wealths they discovered in Constantinople, many found it impossible to give up everything they had taken. Greed, long portrayed by clerics as one of the greatest frailties of the crusading knight, took house root in the Black Marias and heads of the westerners. Tempted by the colossal wealth that lay in forepart of them and ignoring any menaces of hanging or exclusion, they kept back immense amounts of money—possibly every bit much as 500,000 marks23 —more so than the amount gathered in the official exchequer.

The money was distributed amongst the reformers harmonizing to a rigorous expression: a knight received twice every bit much as a mounted sergeant, who in bend was given twice every bit much as a foot-soldier. The Devastatio Constantirzopolitana provides elaborate figures, saying that each knight received 20 Markss ; churchmans and mounted sergeants 10 Markss ; and foot-soldiers five Markss. This matches the ratio noted by Villehardouin and computes reasonably neatly to a force of 10,000 work forces in the combined Gallic, German and northern Italian contingents, with a farther 10,000 Venetians, conveying the entire crusading ground forces to 20,000—a figure cited by Geoffrey himself.24

Villehardouin was, tacitly at least, defeated with the sum of spoil collected, although as we have seen, a immense proportion of the loot ne'er reached the official exchequers. But if he was relatively phlegmatic, Robert of Clari was candent. The lesser work forces had all seen Constantinople’s breathtaking wealth with their ain eyes and their outlooks of personal addition were commensurately high. When the financess were dispensed there was incredulity ; disgusting drama was deemed certain and Robert accused the exchequer guards and the senior leaders of syphoning off whatever they wished. He denounced them for taking gold decorations, fabric of silk and gold, and for sharing nil other than plain silver—the mere hurlers that ladies would transport to the baths, as he complained—with the lesser knights and foot-soldiers. This, Robert believed, was an unfair wages for those who had shared in the forfeits and battles of the run and he hinted that this unjust intervention had reverberations for the leaders.25

Throughout the sack of Constantinople the reformer cantonment had been alive with treatment, rumor and chitchat as to the pick of a new emperor. The whole ground forces was summoned to a meeting and a drawn-out and vigorous argument ensued. In the terminal the determination came down to the two most obvious campaigners: Winfred of Montferrat and Baldwin of Flanders. Yet to take between these two fine work forces was highly hard and the other prima Lords worried that whoever lost would go from the host and take his work forces with him, go forthing the master in a earnestly compromised place. They drew a parallel to the First Crusade when, after the election of Godfrey of Bouillon as the swayer of Jerusalem, his challenger, Raymond of Saint-Gilles, was so covetous that he induced many others to abandon Godfrey, with the consequence that barely any knights remained to keep the newcomer province together. Merely through God’s protection, they concluded, had the land of Jerusalem survived. In order to avoid a repeat of these events, the leading in 1204 proposed that the unsuccessful campaigner should be rewarded with lands of such graduated table and value that he would be pleased to stay in the part. This thought was supported by everyone, including the two campaigners.

Merely the doge of Venice remained uneasy about the potency for serious problem if the failed campaigner reacted severely. He advised that Boniface and Baldwin should resign their imperial castles and that the edifices should be placed under a common guard. He argued that whoever was elected emperor should be able to take ownership of the castles as he wished. In other words, he thought that a loath also-ran might take non to manus over his abode and would so hold a powerful base from which to do problem. Again, the two Lords involved acceded to the proposal and the election procedure continued peacefully.

The major challenge that faced the Gallic, German and northern Italian reformers was how best to choose their six voters, as required by the March Pact. Because both the campaigners came from this wide group. the individuality of the voters could easy lade the vote procedure in one peculiar way. Robert of Clari wrote that each adult male attempted to put his ain people into the sestet and there followed yearss of intense argument as the haggle and statements dragged on. In the terminal it was decided that six clerics should be chosen, on the footing that they would non be swayed by political considerations. As Baldwin himself ( unsurprisingly ) wrote: ‘all partiality put aside’.28 The churchmans were the bishops of Soissons, Halberstadt andTroyes, the bishop of Bethlehem ( a new apostolic official emissary ) , the bishop-elect of Acre and the northern Italian archimandrite of Lucedio. The worthiness of this group may non be in uncertainty ; whether it was free of prejudice is less clear: Peter of Lucedio had accompanied Boniface to Soissons when he took the cross, and Conrad of Halberstadt was a zealot of Boniface’s master, Philip of Swabia. Set against this, John of Noyen, now the bishop-elect of Acre, had been Baldwin of Flanders’s Chancellor of the Exchequer.

The important assembly took topographic point in the chapel of the castle occupied by the doge himself. A mass of the Holy Spirit was chanted to seek Godhead counsel for the at hand argument. The chapel doors were shut and the treatment began. There is no extant eye-witness history, and the inside informations of the conference remain secret. In the castle outside, zealots of the two campaigners gathered uneasily. The commission was doing a determination of rather colossal dimensions: the lift of a adult male to the rank of emperor, and the acquisition of all the position, wealth and lands that came with it, was a astonishing duty. A Catholic emperor would besides stand for a monolithic extension of lands under the authorization of the pontificate.

A boom of blessing echoed around the hall and the intelligence coursed through the metropolis. The Gallic contingent was exultant ; the marquis’s work forces were intelligibly heartsick. We do non cognize Boniface’s true feelings, but Villehardouin studies that he nobly acknowledged his opponent’s triumph and paid him due honor. He drew profoundly on the knightly ethos of the tribunal of Montferrat and abided by the pre-election understandings: there was none of the dissentious clash that had been so feared. In the short term, at least, it seemed that the consensual, conciliar attack had paid away and Baldwin was able to bask his success to the full.

Niketas Choniates gave his ain grounds for Baldwin being preferred to Boniface. The Greek regarded Doge Dandolo as the traveling force behind the Fleming’s choice. Niketas hated the doge and regarded him as a scheming and self-interested adult male who would hold competed in the ballot himself, had his sightlessness non rendered him ineligible for the imperial self-respect. Niketas neglected to add two other of import grounds for Dandolo non standing: foremost, the Venetians advanced old ages and, 2nd, a general consciousness that by taking him the reformers would be unfastened to accusals that their run was motivated by fiscal considerations. Notwithstanding his great abilities, it would hold been political and diplomatic self-destruction to take Dandolo as emperor.

Puting aside Niketas’s biass, his analysis of why the Venetians favoured Baldwin is basically plausible. He suggests that the doge wanted an emperor who would non be excessively ambitious and whose lands were some distance from Venice, so that, if the two parties fell out in the hereafter, Dandolo’s place metropolis would non be threatened. Boniface, of class, was based in northern Italy, uncomfortably near Venice ; and he had a close association with the Genoese, one of the other major merchandising powers of the mediaeval Mediterranean. The possibility of an emperor sympathetic to the Uenetians’ great challengers, who might endanger the commercial privileges secured through the labor and forfeit of the present run, could non be countenanced: ‘thus those things which the many with sight could non clearly perceive, he who was sightless discerned through the eyes of his mind’.30 On this footing, the six Venetian voters were ever likely to vote against Boniface and, every bit long as a plausible alternate existed—which Baldwin surely was—then merely one of the six clerics needed to be swayed to deny the Marquis the imperial throne. The Flemish candidate’s natural supporters—the bishops of Soissons and Troyes and the Flemish bishop-elect of Acre—gave him a comfy bulk. The staying three clerics, notwithstanding the northern Italian place of Peter of Lucedio, may good hold concluded that Baldwin was the best adult male anyhow, or else they decided to fall in the victorious side and present a consentaneous finding of fact.

The hebdomad taking up to the enthronement saw frenetic activity in Constantinople as the westerners prepared for the formalization of their conquering. The mercers, seamsters and haberdashers of the metropolis did enormous concern as the reformers spent some of their new-found wealth on the finest robes available. The demand to be seen in the most brilliant garb possible brought out all the pretentious amour propres and competitory inherent aptitudes of the knightly tribunals of the West. Many glorious robes and gowns were made from the celebrated silk fabric created in the western parts of the Byzantine Empire, and these beautiful garments were adorned with cherished rocks looted from the metropolis.

On 16 May 1204 an bodyguard of the taking clergy and the senior Gallic, northern Italian and Venetian Lords collected Baldwin from the Bucoleon castle and escorted him with due honor to the Hagia Sophia. Once at the church, dressed in his splendid robes, he was led to the communion table by Louis of Blois, Hugh of Saint-Pol, Marquis Boniface and several clerics. In forepart of a jammed fold, all dressed in their glorious new apparels, Baldwin was stripped to the waist, anointed, reclothed and so officially crowned emperor. The reformer conquering of Constantinople was complete. In a hall filled with western adventurers, an expedition that had set out to liberate the sanctum topographic points reached a flood tide that no 1 could hold predicted, as a Flemish count took control of one of the most powerful political entities in the known universe.

Baldwin sat upon the imperial throne and listened to mass, in one manus keeping a scepter and in the other a aureate Earth topped by a cross. Robert of Clari pointedly acknowledged this rarified degree of authorization when he wrote that ‘the gems which he was have oning were worth more than the hoarded wealth a rich male monarch would make’.32 After mass the new emperor processed out of the great church, mounted a white Equus caballus and was escorted back to his castle to be seated upon the throne of Constantine. There Baldwin sat, at the really epicenter of the imperial self-respect and a clear symbol of the westerners’ perceptual experience of a continuity between themselves and the Grecian swayers. Then the knights and clerics and all the Grecian Lords paid court to him as emperor. With the formalities complete, it was clip for the enthronement feast ; tabular arraies were placed in the hall and a deluxe banquet rounded off the first twenty-four hours of what we know as the Latin Empire of Constantinople.

In the wake of the sack, authors from both sides reflected on events and considered how and why they had happened. Baldwin himself wrote a series of letters to outstanding figures in Europe to explicate the state of affairs in Greece. Letterss addressed to the archbishop of Cologne, the archimandrites of the Cistercian order, to ‘all the Christian faithful’ and, most significantly, to Pope Innocent III himself survive. As in the instance of earlier letters from the campaign leaders, such as that of Hugh of Saint-Pol in the summer of 1203, this letter had to sketch and warrant the advancement and result of the expedition. Baldwin was cognizant that the run was unfastened to charges from several different quarters: the reformers had disobeyed apostolic bids refering onslaughts on the Byzantines ; they were motivated strictly by money ; they had neglected their brethren in the Holy Land and had discredited their crusading vows. This missive is, hence, a thoughtful and extremely polished piece of composing. In modern footings we would see it as political ‘spin’—putting a positive rubric on events that have provoked contention or anxiousness. The new emperor’s close circle, peculiarly the extremely educated churchmans, worked difficult to back up his instance by peppering the narrative with an impressive array of scriptural and rhetorical setup.

The basic push of Baldwin’s missive was to underscore godly indorsement for what had taken topographic point: ‘Divine Clemency has performed a fantastic bend of events round about us. there can be no uncertainty, even among the disbelievers, but that the manus of the Lord guided all of these events, since nil that we hoped for or antecedently anticipated occurred, but so, eventually, the Lord provided us with new signifiers of assistance, insamuch as there did non look to be any feasible human plan:33 The really success of the expedition had to be God’s will. This was the best and strongest statement that the reformers could rally.

The emperor gave a narrative of events from August 1203 onwards, taking great attention to light Alexius IV’s lies and bearing false witness and in peculiar his failure to adhere to the promises in the Treaty of Zara, which had led the campaign to Constantinople in the first case. He was held responsible for the onslaught of the fire-ships ( possibly untrue ) and for bring downing awful adversities on his ain people. Murtzuphlus was damned as a false witness for neglecting to maintain his promise to manus over the Blachernae castle in return for crusader support of Alexius. Murtzuphlus was so depicted as a treasonist and liquidator for his barbarous remotion of the immature emperor. Baldwin was careful to detail the concluding effort to do peace when the doge met the Greek supplanter, and the missive laid emphasis upon Murtzuphlus’s refusal to subject the Orthodox Church to Rome, a affair of obvious importance to Innocent.

Baldwin systematically ascribed reformer successes, such as the gaining control of the icon of the Virgin Mary and the deficiency of harm wrought by the fire-ships, to the approval of God. This Godhead blessing was, of course, linked to the crusaders’ proper moral intent, and during the concluding assault on Constantinople the Fleming portrayed them as assailing the metropolis ‘for the honor of the Holy Roman Church and for the alleviation of the Holy Land’.34 When he described the storming of the crenelations he once more chose to explicate the reformer triumph in divinely ordained footings: ‘at the Lord’s command a huge battalion gives manner to really few’ . While Baldwin did non shy away from adverting the violent death of many Greeks, he chose to exclude the more unpleasant inside informations of colza, loot and sack that took topographic point. The graduated table of the loot ( ‘an incomputable abundance’ ) was noted as he emphasised the victory of such a little force. Baldwin wrote: ‘we might safely state that no history could of all time associate wonders greater than these so far as the lucks of war are concerned’ . This was the sort of linguistic communication and exaggeration that writers used after the gaining control of Jerusalem by the First Crusade in 1099 and, like the singular accomplishment of that earlier expedition, the run of 1204 had to be blessed with God’s blessing. Quoting from Psalms 98 and 118, Baldwin wrote: ‘Now nevertheless, we do non wrongly laic claim to this triumph for ourselves because the Lord’s ain right manus delivered Himself and His powerful arm was revealed in us. This was done by the Lord, and it is a miracle above all miracles in our eyes:35 In other words, the recreation to Constantinople was justified and above reproach.

Further subdivisions of Emperor Baldwin’s missive cast the devastation of the punic Greeks as a valid campaign in itself. He claimed, right, that some clerics and soldiers from the Holy Land were present at his enthronement and that ‘above all others their joy was incalculable and unrestrained’ , and that they gave thanks to God ‘just as if the Holy City had been restored to Christian worship’ . The ground for their delectation was that the campaign had ended the Greeks’ hostility towards the holy warriors. Baldwin criticised the Byzantines’ confederations with the Muslims, their provision of the heathen with weaponries, ships and nutrient, and their neglect for their shared bond of religion with the westerners. He drew attending to their deficiency of regard for the pontificate, to the assorted liturgical and practical differences of spiritual observation between the Orthodox and the Catholics, and how the former viewed all westerners as Canis familiariss. Baldwin argued that the Greeks had provoked God by their wickednesss and, through the reformers, He had punished them.

Having portrayed the conquering of Constantinople as a campaign against pagans, Baldwin took attention non to bury the expedition to the Levant. He expressed the hope that, one time the Byzantine lands were stabilised, he would go on to the Holy Land. In the interim he turned to Innocent for support and, doing clear that he regarded his new duties as a religious affair, Baldwin urged the Catholic Pope to name for a campaign to assist the nascent Latin Empire and promised that those who came would be rewarded with lands and honours harmonizing to their station. He besides asked for clerics to come and settle, holding foremost gained the permission of their spiritual higher-ups.

Baldwin closed his missive by commending the honest and prudent behavior of the clergy in the class of the campaign and by supplying a pealing citation of the character of Doge Dandolo and all the Venetians, ‘whom we find to be faithful and diligent in all circumstances’.36 The fact that some of the reformer clergy had chosen to stamp down apostolic correspondence at Zara, and that Innocent was one of many who were profoundly leery of Venetian motivations, meant that it was of import for the emperor to bolster the credibleness of the Italians. The missive was dispatched in the summer and would likely hold reached the Catholic Pope in around September or October 1204.

If Baldwin was in the happy place of explicating the gaining control of Constantinople from the position of the master, Niketas Choniates had to grok the contrary. The loss of Constantinople was a’ monolithic personal blow ; its desolation provoked hurting at the indignations perpetrated against its people and cloth, every bit good as choler against those who committed such awful workss: ‘crimes committed against the heritage of Christ’ . To him, the greed, the inhumaneness and haughtiness of the westerners were intolerable. He constructed a sparkling indictment of their motivations. Most peculiarly he blamed the leading and mocked their high moral stance: ‘They who were faithful to their curses, who loved truth and hated immoralities, who were more pious and merely and scrupulous in maintaining the commandments of Christ than we Greeks: He claimed that the reformers had wholly abandoned their vows to traverse over Christian lands without casting blood and to contend the Muslims. He besides reviled them for their sexual dross as work forces ‘consecrated to God and commissioned to follow in His footsteps’.37

His decision was scathing: ‘In truth they were exposed as frauds. Seeking to revenge the Holy Sepulchre, they raged openly against Christ and sinned by turn overing the Cross with the cross they bore on their dorsums, non even shivering to tread on it for the interest of a small gold and silver.’38 Niketas so drew a simple analogue: when the First Crusaders took Jerusalem in 1099 they had shown no compassion to the Muslim dwellers. When, 88 old ages subsequently, the Muslims had taken the holy metropolis back they had behaved far better, neither lusting after the Christian adult females nor ‘transforming the entryway to the vitalizing grave into a passageway taking down into Hades’ . By redeeming the guardians stingily and allowing them maintain their ownerships, the Muslims had dealt magnanimously with the defeated people of Jerusalem.

To pull such a cursing comparing with, of all people, the Muslims was, of class, amply dry. The analogy was besides true: Saladin’s work forces did save the bulk of those in Jerusalem, yet the Fourth Crusaders had slaughtered their fellow-Christians. The deduction here is obvious: to Niketas, the westerners’ behavior rendered them worse than heathens. For a 2nd clip, hence, the reformers had been revealed as blood-thirsty savages. His analysis ended with a simple observation: ‘How otherwise. the Latins treated us who love Christ and are their fellow-believers, guiltless of any incorrect against them.’39

The church of the Holy Apostles contained a mausoleum keeping the grave of some of the great Byzantine emperors of the past, including Justinian. Not content with plundering all the church’s decorations and goblets, the reformers broke unfastened the great imperial grave. These mighty sarcophagi, made of the violet porphyritic rock marble that signified imperial position, held non merely cadavers, but besides gold, gems and pearls. Justinian’s organic structure was found to be in about perfect status ; in the 639 old ages since his decease his corpse had hardly decomposed. In medieval footings this was a mark of great holiness and godly indorsement of a good life. While the reformers were punctually impressed, it did nil to hold their stealing the valuables lying around the imperial organic structure. As Niketas searingly observed: ‘In other words the western states spared neither the life nor the dead, but get downing with God and his retainers, they displayed complete indifference and irreverence to all.’42

Cherished metals were stripped from public edifices and memorials in order to make wealth: melted down and minted into coins, they allowed the westerners to get down paying rewards and to finance undertakings of their ain. Many of Constantinople’s great statues were unfeelingly cast to the land and consigned to the smelting furnaces. The bronze figure of Hera was pulled down and carted away to the fires ; such was its immense size that her caput was said to hold needed four yokes of cattle to transport it off. Other statues, such as Paris, Alexander and Aphrodite, joined Hera in the dust. The extraordinary wind-vane, the Anemodoulion, a mighty equestrian statue from the Forum of the Bull, was besides dragged off to feed the insatiate fires.

Sack Of Constantinople ( 1204 ) - Wikipedia

The sack of Constantinople is a major turning point in mediaeval history and Christianity more by and large. The Crusaders ' determination to assail a major Christian capital was unprecedented and instantly controversial, even among the Crusaders themselves. Relationss between the western and eastern Christian universes were badly wounded and would non to the full retrieve for 100s of old ages afterwards, and the Byzantine Empire became poorer, smaller, and less able to support itself against the Turkish conquerings that followed. The Fourth Crusade therefore left Christendom more divided and weakened than earlier.

Before the besieging

The Massacre of the Latins ( Italian: Massacro dei Latini ; Grecian: Σφαγή τῶν Λατίνων ) , a large-scale slaughter of the Roman Catholic or `` Latin '' dwellers of Constantinople by the Eastern Orthodox population of the metropolis in May 1182, had a dramatic consequence on the split between the Western and Eastern Christian churches. The slaughter besides farther worsened the image of the Byzantines in the eyes of the Western powers, and, although regular trade understandings were shortly resumed between Byzantium and Latin provinces, the implicit in ill will would stay, go forthing many westerners seeking some signifier of retaliation.

On 25 January 1204, the decease of co-Emperor Isaac II set off rioting in Constantinople in which the people deposed Alexios IV, who turned to the Crusaders for aid but was imprisoned by the imperial Chamberlain, Alexios Doukas, who declared himself Emperor on 5 February. Emperor Alexios V so attempted to negociate with the Reformers for a backdown from Byzantine district, but they refused to abandon their old pact with Alexios IV. When Alexios V ordered Alexios IV 's executing on 8 February, the Reformers declared war on Alexios V. In March 1204, the Crusader and Venetian leading decided on the straight-out conquering of Constantinople, and drew up a formal understanding to split the Byzantine Empire between them.

Capture of the metropolis

On 12 April 1204 conditions conditions eventually favoured the Crusaders as the conditions cleared and a 2nd assault on the metropolis was ordered. A strong north air current aided the Venetian ships near the Golden Horn to come near to the metropolis wall, which enabled the aggressors to prehend some of the towers along the wall. After a short conflict about 70 Reformers managed to come in the metropolis. Some Reformers were finally able to strike hard holes in the walls big plenty for a few knights at a clip to creep through ; the Venetians were besides successful at scaling the walls from the sea, although there was highly bloody contending with the Varangians. The Crusaders captured the Blachernae subdivision of the metropolis in the Northwest and used it as a base to assail the remainder of the metropolis, but while trying to support themselves with a wall of fire they ended up firing down even more of the metropolis. Emperor Alexios V fled from the metropolis that dark through the Polyandriou ( Rhegium ) Gate and escaped into the countryside to the West.

Sack of Constantinople

The Crusaders looted, terrorized, and vandalized Constantinople for three yearss, during which many antediluvian and mediaeval Roman and Greek plants were either stolen or destroyed. The celebrated bronze Equus caballuss from the Hippodrome were sent back to decorate the façade of St Mark 's Basilica in Venice, where they remain. Equally good as being stolen, plants of unmeasurable artistic value were destroyed simply for their stuff value. One of the most cherished plants to endure such a destiny was a big bronze statue of Hercules, created by the legendary Lysippos, tribunal sculpturer of Alexander the Great. Like so many other priceless graphicss made of bronze, the statue was melted down for its content by the Crusaders. The great Library of Constantinople was destroyed every bit good.

Despite their curses and the menace of exclusion, the Crusaders consistently violated the metropolis 's holy sanctuaries, destructing or stealing all they could put custodies on ; nil was spared, non even the grave of the emperors inside the St Apostles church. The civilian population of Constantinople were capable to the Crusaders ' ruthless lecherousness for spoils and glorification ; 1000s of them were killed in cold blood. Women, even nuns, were raped by the Crusader ground forces, which besides sacked churches, monasteries and convents. The really communion tables of these churches were smashed and torn to pieces for their gold and marble by the warriors. Although the Venetians engaged in plundering excessively, their actions were far more reticent. Doge Dandolo still appeared to hold far more control over his work forces. Rather than wantonly destructing all around like their companions, the Venetians stole spiritual relics and plants of art, which they would subsequently take to Venice to decorate their ain churches.

Aftermath

Harmonizing to a prearranged pact the imperium was apportioned between Venice and the campaign 's leaders, and the Latin Empire of Constantinople was established. Boniface was non elected as the new emperor, although the citizens seemed to see him as such ; the Venetians thought he had excessively many connexions with the former imperium because of his brother, Renier of Montferrat, who had been married to Maria Comnena, empress in the 1170s and 80s. Alternatively they placed Baldwin of Flanders on the throne. He was crowned Emperor in the Hagia Sophia as Baldwin I of Constantinople. Boniface went on to establish the Kingdom of Thessalonica, a vassal province of the new Latin Empire. The Venetians besides founded the Duchy of the Archipelago in the Aegean Sea.

Bequest

Eight hundred old ages after the Fourth Crusade, Pope John Paul II twice expressed sorrow for the events of the Fourth Crusade. In 2001 he wrote to Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens, stating, `` It is tragic that the attackers, who set out to procure free entree for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their brothers in the religion. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep sorrow. '' In 2004, while Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, was sing the Vatican, John Paul II asked, `` How can we non portion, at a distance of eight centuries, the hurting and disgust? '' This has been regarded as an apology to the Grecian Orthodox Church for the slaughter perpetrated by the warriors of the Fourth Crusade.

In April 2004, in a address on the 800th day of remembrance of the gaining control of the metropolis, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I officially accepted the apology. `` The spirit of rapprochement is stronger than hatred, '' he said during a Holy Eucharist attended by Roman Catholic Archbishop Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, France. `` We receive with gratitude and esteem your affable gesture for the tragic events of the Fourth Crusade. It is a fact that a offense was committed here in the metropolis 800 old ages ago. '' Bartholomew said his credence came in the spirit of Pascha. `` The spirit of rapprochement of the Resurrection. incites us toward rapprochement of our churches. ''

Not merely was money in copiousness at Constantinople, centre of a far flung political and commercial hegemony, but the bezzants struck with the imperial seal became the recognized medium of exchange throughout the civilised universe. Beyond doubt grounds of the respect for Byzantine mintage are the nomisma with names of the Byzantine emperors of the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries which have been found in southern and western India, and in the Mongol caches which were uncovered during the Indian Mutiny of 1856. The majority of these coins, by the way, were non carried to India by Byzantine merchandisers, but by Persians and Abyssinians, who obviously regarded them as more by and large acceptable than the productions of their ain batchs. And in Europe the bezzants served in all of import payments where gold passed custodies. Either because of regard for the authorization of the Eastern Empire, as Del Mar believes, or because of the prestigiousness of the Byzantine gold and the profuseness with which it was minted, the European princes and feudal Godheads ne'er minted gold on their ain history. In England, for case, we learn from the treasury axial rotations of the Middle Ages, payments in bezzants were the ordinary thing where gold was used. ( Groseclose, Money and Man, p. 50 ) .

In the center of the 11th century the repose of the east Mediterranean universe seemed assured for many old ages to come. Its two great powers, Byzantium and Fatimid Egypt, were on good footings with each other. Neither was aggressive ; both wished to maintain in cheque the Moslem states farther to the E, where adventurers from Turkestan were stirring up problem, which as yet did non look serious. The Fatimids showed goodwill towards the local Christians and welcomed merchandisers and pilgrims from the West ; and this good will was guaranteed by the power of Byzantium. ( Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 23 ) .

When Constantinople was captured by the Crusaders and Venetians it was adorned with the accrued wealth of centuries and decorated with art hoarded wealths for which non merely Greece but the whole Roman Empire had been ransacked. When the metropolis was recaptured by the Greeks it was a devastation. Houses, churches, and monasteries were in ruins ; whole quarters were deserted. Heaps of trash marked where extended fires had consumed houses which no 1 cared to reconstruct. The imperial castle itself was in so disorderly and filthy a status that it was sometime before it could be occupied. In topographic point of a big population of the most educated and extremely civilized people in Europe, was a miserably little figure of Greeks who had been reduced to poverty with a figure of foreign and chiefly Gallic settlers. While the foreign capturers had plundered the metropolis and carried off the bronze Equus caballuss of Lysippus and countless other objects of art and value to Western Europe, they and their replacements during the 58 old ages of business had, in their disdainful ignorance of the art of a conquered people, destroyed likely more than had been taken away as loot. ( Pears, The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks, p. 22 ) .

Last, the depopulation caused by the awful diseases which visited Europe in the century predating the Moslem conquering aided greatly in destructing the imperium. The prevalence of Black Death or Plague killed in the Balkan peninsula and particularly in the towns 100s of 1000s and perchance 1000000s of the population. In 1347 this flagellum, likely the most deathly signifier of epidemic that has of all time afflicted humanity, made its visual aspect in Eastern Europe. The metropoliss of the imperium contained big populations crowded together, and their normal population was increased by many runawaies. These crowded metropoliss, with their faulty healthful agreements and destitute dwellers, offered a favorable dirt for a rich crop of decease. The disease had followed the seashores from the Black Sea, where, says Cantacuzenus, it had carried off about all the dwellers. At Constantinople it raged during two old ages, one of its first victims being the eldest boy of Cantacuzenus himself. Rich every bit good as hapless succumbed to it. What proportion of the dwellers of the metropolis died it is impossible to state, but, judging by what is known of its consequence elsewhere, we should likely non be incorrect in proposing that half the people perished. But its depredations were non confined to the towns, and from one terminal of the Balkan peninsula to the other it swept the state in perennial trials and likely carried off about the same proportion of dwellers. Cantacuzenus, in a graphic description of the disease, adds that the saddest characteristic about it was the feeling of hopelessness and desperation which it left behind. ( Pears, The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks, pp. 189-190 ) .

It may safely be assumed that the Turks, who lived in the unfastened air, and in the state instead than in towns, suffered less than the Christians. Though they are reported to hold lost badly, the procedure of depopulation barely told against them. The topographic points of those who died were taken by the ever-crowding imperativeness of immigrants flocking due west. The replacements of the Greeks who perished were non Christians but Turks. In other words, while the Christians died out of the land, there were ever at manus Turkish nomads to take their topographic point. ( Pears, The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks, p. 191 ) .

The church was still thronged. The Holy Liturgy was ended, and the service of morning prayers was being Sung. At the sound of the uproar outside the immense bronze Gatess of the edifice were closed. Inside the fold prayed for the miracle that entirely could salvage them. They prayed in vain. It was non long before the doors were battered down. The believers were trapped. A few of the antediluvian and infirm were killed on the topographic point ; but most of them were tied or chained together. Head coverings and scarves were torn off the adult females to function as ropes. Many of the lovelier maidens and young persons and many of the richer-clad Lords were about torn to decease as their capturers quarrelled over them. Soon a long emanation of ill-assorted small groups of work forces and adult females bound tightly together was being dragged to the soldiers ' camp, there to be fought over one time once more. The priests went on intonation at the communion table boulder clay they excessively were taken. But at the last minute, so the faithful believed, a few of them snatched up the holiest vass and moved to the southern wall of the sanctuary. It opened for them and - closed behind them ; and there they will stay until the sacred building becomes a church one time more. ( Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople 1453, p. 147 ) .

Northern Europe had taken an involvement now, excessively, and its bookmans had begun traveling to Italy, where many of them studied with the same Byzantine instructors as the Italians. The Dutch bookman who was the greatest of the northern humanists, Desiderius Erasmus, learned Greek in Venice with Marcus Musurus. Erasmus ' English friend Thomas Linacre, a physician and classicist who founded London 's Royal College of Physicians, spent more than a decennary in Italy analyzing Grecian with Demetrius Chalcondyles and Politian, and winning his grade in medical specialty from the university of Padua. Linacre was Erasmus ' and Sir Thomas More 's physician, and the close friend of another English humanist, John Colet, who had besides studied in Italy. The German humanist Johannes Reuchlin had come to Italy in the 1480s, where he studied Grecian with John Argyropoulos in Rome. ( Wells, Sailing from Byzantium, p. 113 ) .

The Byzantine guardians and their Venetian and Genovese Alliess had noticed omens since the lunar occultation a hebdomad before. An icon of the Virgin Mary slipped from its platform as it was carried through the metropolis ; so a electrical storm halted the emanation. As twilight fell on May 28th, the Emperor Constantine warned his topics they might hold to give their lives for the religion, household, state and crowned head. The clergy—bitterly divided by philosophy, as Christianity 's 400-year-old east-west split deepened—put aside their differences to keep an evening service in Saint Sophia, the greatest church of eastern Christendom.

Mehmet besides took attention to continue integral the metropolis 's 2nd most-important church, that of the Holy Apostles, and manus it to the Greek Orthodox patriarch. Though much misused by the temporal governments, the patriarchate survived as an establishment for administrating the Greek and other Orthodox Christian communities in the new transnational imperium. As a unusual side-effect of the Muslim conquering, the doctrinal unity of eastern Christendom was preserved: alternatively of the via medias with the Vatican that might otherwise hold been inevitable, the patriarchate was able to keep to its position on the issues, such as the nature of the Trinity, that had led to so much bitter statement.

Sack of Constantinople ( 1204 )

The sack of Constantinople is a major turning point in mediaeval history and Christianity more by and large. The Crusaders ' determination to assail a major Christian capital was unprecedented and instantly controversial, even among the Crusaders themselves. Relationss between the western and eastern Christian universes were badly wounded and would non to the full retrieve for 100s of old ages afterwards, and the Byzantine Empire became poorer, smaller, and less able to support itself against the Turkish conquerings that followed. The Fourth Crusade therefore left Christendom more divided and weakened than earlier.

Before the besieging

The Massacre of the Latins ( Italian: Massacro dei Latini ; Grecian: Σφαγή τῶν Λατίνων ) , a large-scale slaughter of the Roman Catholic or `` Latin '' dwellers of Constantinople by the Eastern Orthodox population of the metropolis in May 1182, had a dramatic consequence on the split between the Western and Eastern Christian churches. The slaughter besides farther worsened the image of the Byzantines in the eyes of the Western powers, and, although regular trade understandings were shortly resumed between Byzantium and Latin provinces, the implicit in ill will would stay, go forthing many westerners seeking some signifier of retaliation.

On 25 January 1204, the decease of co-Emperor Isaac II set off rioting in Constantinople in which the people deposed Alexios IV, who turned to the Crusaders for aid but was imprisoned by the imperial Chamberlain, Alexios Doukas, who declared himself Emperor on 5 February. Emperor Alexios V so attempted to negociate with the Reformers for a backdown from Byzantine district, but they refused to abandon their old pact with Alexios IV. When Alexios V ordered Alexios IV 's executing on 8 February, the Reformers declared war on Alexios V. In March 1204, the Crusader and Venetian leading decided on the straight-out conquering of Constantinople, and drew up a formal understanding to split the Byzantine Empire between them.

Capture of the metropolis

On 12 April 1204 conditions conditions eventually favoured the Crusaders as the conditions cleared and a 2nd assault on the metropolis was ordered. A strong north air current aided the Venetian ships near the Golden Horn to come near to the metropolis wall, which enabled the aggressors to prehend some of the towers along the wall. After a short conflict about 70 Reformers managed to come in the metropolis. Some Reformers were finally able to strike hard holes in the walls big plenty for a few knights at a clip to creep through ; the Venetians were besides successful at scaling the walls from the sea, although there was highly bloody contending with the Varangians. The Crusaders captured the Blachernae subdivision of the metropolis in the Northwest and used it as a base to assail the remainder of the metropolis, but while trying to support themselves with a wall of fire they ended up firing down even more of the metropolis. Emperor Alexios V fled from the metropolis that dark through the Polyandriou ( Rhegium ) Gate and escaped into the countryside to the West.

Sack of Constantinople

The Crusaders looted, terrorized, and vandalized Constantinople for three yearss, during which many antediluvian and mediaeval Roman and Greek plants were either stolen or destroyed. The celebrated bronze Equus caballuss from the Hippodrome were sent back to decorate the façade of St Mark 's Basilica in Venice, where they remain. Equally good as being stolen, plants of unmeasurable artistic value were destroyed simply for their stuff value. One of the most cherished plants to endure such a destiny was a big bronze statue of Hercules, created by the legendary Lysippos, tribunal sculpturer of Alexander the Great. Like so many other priceless graphicss made of bronze, the statue was melted down for its content by the Crusaders. The great Library of Constantinople was destroyed every bit good.

Despite their curses and the menace of exclusion, the Crusaders consistently violated the metropolis 's holy sanctuaries, destructing or stealing all they could put custodies on ; nil was spared, non even the grave of the emperors inside the St Apostles church. The civilian population of Constantinople were capable to the Crusaders ' ruthless lecherousness for spoils and glorification ; 1000s of them were killed in cold blood. Women, even nuns, were raped by the Crusader ground forces, which besides sacked churches, monasteries and convents. The really communion tables of these churches were smashed and torn to pieces for their gold and marble by the warriors. Although the Venetians engaged in plundering excessively, their actions were far more reticent. Doge Dandolo still appeared to hold far more control over his work forces. Rather than wantonly destructing all around like their companions, the Venetians stole spiritual relics and plants of art, which they would subsequently take to Venice to decorate their ain churches.

Aftermath

Harmonizing to a prearranged pact the imperium was apportioned between Venice and the campaign 's leaders, and the Latin Empire of Constantinople was established. Boniface was non elected as the new emperor, although the citizens seemed to see him as such ; the Venetians thought he had excessively many connexions with the former imperium because of his brother, Renier of Montferrat, who had been married to Maria Comnena, empress in the 1170s and 80s. Alternatively they placed Baldwin of Flanders on the throne. He was crowned Emperor in the Hagia Sophia as Baldwin I of Constantinople. Boniface went on to establish the Kingdom of Thessalonica, a vassal province of the new Latin Empire. The Venetians besides founded the Duchy of the Archipelago in the Aegean Sea.

Bequest

Eight hundred old ages after the Fourth Crusade, Pope John Paul II twice expressed sorrow for the events of the Fourth Crusade. In 2001 he wrote to Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens, stating, `` It is tragic that the attackers, who set out to procure free entree for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their brothers in the religion. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep sorrow. '' In 2004, while Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, was sing the Vatican, John Paul II asked, `` How can we non portion, at a distance of eight centuries, the hurting and disgust? '' This has been regarded as an apology to the Grecian Orthodox Church for the slaughter perpetrated by the warriors of the Fourth Crusade.

In April 2004, in a address on the 800th day of remembrance of the gaining control of the metropolis, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I officially accepted the apology. `` The spirit of rapprochement is stronger than hatred, '' he said during a Holy Eucharist attended by Roman Catholic Archbishop Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, France. `` We receive with gratitude and esteem your affable gesture for the tragic events of the Fourth Crusade. It is a fact that a offense was committed here in the metropolis 800 old ages ago. '' Bartholomew said his credence came in the spirit of Pascha. `` The spirit of rapprochement of the Resurrection. incites us toward rapprochement of our churches. ''

Istanbul

From the mid-5th century to the early thirteenth century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest metropolis in Europe and it was instrumental in the promotion of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the place of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the defender of Christendom 's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns and the True Cross. After the concluding loss of its states in the early fifteenth century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to merely Constantinople and its environments, along with Morea in Greece, and the metropolis finally fell to the Ottomans after a month-long besieging in 1453.

Constantinople was famed for its monolithic and complex defense mechanisms. Although besieged on legion occasions by assorted peoples, the defense mechanisms of Constantinople proved invulnerable for about nine hundred old ages before the metropolis was taken in 1204 by the Crusader ground forcess of the Fourth Crusade, and after it was liberated in 1261 by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, a 2nd and concluding clip in 1453 when it was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II. The first wall of the metropolis was erected by Constantine I, and surrounded the metropolis on both land and sea foreparts. Subsequently, in the fifth century, the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius under the kid emperor Theodosius II undertook the building of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a dual wall lying about 2 kilometers ( 1.2 stat mis ) to the West of the first wall and a fosse with palisades in forepart. This formidable composite of defense mechanisms was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity and the metropolis was built deliberately on seven hills every bit good as juxtaposed between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara and therefore presented an inviolable fortress enveloping brilliant castles, domes, and towers, necessitated from being the gateway between two continents ( Europe and Asia ) and two seas ( the Mediterranean and the Black Seas ) .

The metropolis was besides famed for its architectural chef-d'oeuvres, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the place of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, and the deluxe blue castles run alonging the arcaded avenues and squares. The University of Constantinople was founded in the 5th century and contained legion artistic and literary hoarded wealths before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its huge Imperial Library which contained the leftovers of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.

Name callings of Constantinople

Byzantium took on the name of Konstantinoupolis ( `` metropolis of Constantine '' , Constantinople ) after its re-foundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium in 330 AD and designated his new capital officially as Nova Roma ( Νέα Ῥώμη ) 'New Rome ' . During this clip, the metropolis was besides called 'Second Rome ' , 'Eastern Rome ' , and Roma Constantinopolitana. As the metropolis became the exclusive staying capital of the Roman Empire after the autumn of the West, and its wealth, population, and influence grew, the metropolis besides came to hold a battalion of monikers.

Modern names of the metropolis

The modern Turkish name for the metropolis, İstanbul, derives from the Grecian phrase eis Sn polin ( εἰς τὴν πόλιν ) , intending `` into the metropolis '' or `` to the metropolis '' . This name was used in Turkish alongside Kostantiniyye, the more formal version of the original Constantinople, during the period of Ottoman regulation, while western linguistic communications largely continued to mention to the metropolis as Constantinople until the early twentieth century. In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was changed from Arabic book to Latin book. After that, as portion of the 1920s Turkification motion, Turkey started to press other states to utilize Turkish names for Turkish metropoliss, alternatively of other transliterations to Latin book that had been used in the Ottoman times. In clip the metropolis came to be known as Istanbul and its fluctuations in most universe linguistic communications.

c. 657 BC–324 AD: Byzantium and earlier colonies

Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I ( 272–337 AD ) in 324 on the site of an already-existing metropolis, Byzantium, which was settled in the early yearss of Grecian colonial enlargement, in around 657 BC, by settlers of the city state of Megara. This is the first major colony that would develop on the site of ulterior Constantinople, but the first known colonies was that of Lygos, referred to in Pliny 's Natural Histories, which was a small town or town of suggested Thracian beginning that was believed to hold been founded in the 13th to 11th centuries BC. Apart from this, small is known about this initial colony, except that it was abandoned by the clip the Megarian settlers settled the site anew.

The metropolis maintained independency as a city state until it was annexed by Darius I in 512 BC into the Persian Empire, who saw the site as the optimum location to build a pontoon span traversing into Europe as Byzantium was situated at the narrowest point in the Bosphorus sound. Iranian regulation lasted until 478 BC when as portion of the Greek countermove to the Second Persian Invasion of Greece, a Grecian ground forces led by the Spartan general Pausanias captured the metropolis which remained an independent, yet low-level, metropolis under the Athenians, and subsequently to the Spartans after 411 BC. A farsighted pact with the emergent power of Rome in c.150 BC which stipulated testimonial in exchange for independent position allowed it to come in Roman regulation unscathed. This pact would pay dividends retrospectively as Byzantium would keep this independent position, and prosper under peace and stableness in the Pax Romana, for about three centuries until the late second century AD.

Byzantium was ne'er a major influential city state like that of Athens, Corinth, and Sparta, but the metropolis enjoyed comparative peace and steady growing as a comfortable trading metropolis Lent by its singular place. The site lay astride the land path from Europe to Asia and the sea lane from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, and had in the Golden Horn an first-class and broad seaport. Already so, in Greek and early Roman times, Byzantium was celebrated for its strategic geographic place that made it hard to beleaguer and gaining control, and its place at the hamlets of the Asiatic-European trade path over land and as the gateway between the Mediterranean and Black Seas made it excessively valuable of a colony to abandon, as Emperor Septimius Severus subsequently realized when he razed the metropolis to the land for back uping Pescennius Niger 's claimancy. It was a move greatly criticized by the modern-day consul and historian Cassius Dio who said that Severus had destroyed `` a strong Roman outstation and a base of operations against the savages from Pontus and Asia '' . He would subsequently reconstruct Byzantium towards the terminal of his reign, in which it would be briefly renamed Augusta Antonina, strengthening it with a new metropolis wall in his name, the Severan Wall.

324–337: Foundation of Constantinople

Constantine had wholly more colorful programs. Having restored the integrity of the Empire, and, being in class of major governmental reforms every bit good as of patronizing the consolidation of the Christian church, he was good cognizant that Rome was an unsatisfactory capital. Rome was excessively far from the frontiers, and therefore from the ground forcess and the imperial tribunals, and it offered an unwanted resort area for ill-affected politicians. Yet it had been the capital of the province for over a thousand old ages, and it might hold seemed unthinkable to propose that the capital be moved to a different location. Nevertheless, Constantine identified the site of Byzantium as the right topographic point: a topographic point where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy entree to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his tribunal supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his exchequers filled by the wealthiest states of the Empire.

Istanbul was built over 6 old ages, and consecrated on 11 May 330. Flavius valerius constantinus divided the expanded metropolis, like Rome, into 14 parts, and ornamented it with public plants worthy of an imperial city. Yet, at first, Constantine 's new Rome did non hold all the self-respects of old Rome. It possessed a proconsul, instead than an urban prefect. It had no pretors, tribunes, or quaestors. Although it did hold senators, they held the rubric clarus, non clarissimus, like those of Rome. It besides lacked the panoply of other administrative offices modulating the nutrient supply, constabulary, statues, temples, cloacas, aqueducts, or other public plants. The new programme of edifice was carried out in great hastiness: columns, marbles, doors, and tiles were taken sweeping from the temples of the imperium and moved to the new metropolis. In similar manner, many of the greatest plants of Greek and Roman art were shortly to be seen in its squares and streets. The emperor stimulated private edifice by assuring homeowners gifts of land from the imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of nutrient would be made to the citizens. At the clip, the sum is said to hold been 80,000 rations a twenty-four hours, doled out from 117 distribution points around the metropolis.

Constantine laid out a new square at the Centre of old Byzantium, calling it the Augustaeum. The new senate-house ( or Curia ) was housed in a basilica on the east side. On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the Emperor with its enforcing entryway, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne. Nearby was the huge Hippodrome for chariot-races, siting over 80,000 witnesss, and the celebrated Baths of Zeuxippus. At the western entryway to the Augustaeum was the Milion, a domed memorial from which distances were measured across the Eastern Roman Empire.

From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese ( Grecian: Μέση lit. `` Middle `` ) , lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the metropolis and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. Then it passed through the egg-shaped Forum of Constantine where there was a 2nd Senate-house and a high column with a statue of Constantine himself in the pretense of Helios, crowned with a aura of seven beams and looking toward the lifting Sun. From at that place, the Mese passed on and through the Forum Tauri and so the Forum Bovis, and eventually up the Seventh Hill ( or Xerolophus ) and through to the Golden Gate in the Constantinian Wall. After the building of the Theodosian Walls in the early fifth century, it was extended to the new Golden Gate, making a entire length of seven Roman stat mis.

337–529: Istanbul during the Migration Period

The importance of Constantinople increased, but it was gradual. From the decease of Constantine in 337 to the accession of Theodosius I, emperors had been resident merely in the old ages 337-8, 347–51, 358–61, 368–69. Its position as a capital was recognized by the assignment of the first known Urban Prefect of the City Honoratus, who took office on 11 December 359 and until 361. The urban prefects had coincident legal power over three states each in the next bishoprics of Thrace ( in which the metropolis was located ) , Pontus and Asia comparable to the 100 stat mi extraordinary legal power of the prefect of Rome. The emperor Valens who hated the metropolis and spent merely one twelvemonth at that place however built the Palace of Hebdomon on the shore of the Propontis near the Golden Gate, likely for usage when reexamining military personnels. All the emperors up to Zeno and Basiliscus were crowned and acclaimed at the Hebdomon. Theodosius I founded the Church of John the Baptist to house the skull of the saint ( today preserved at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey ) , put up a memorial pillar to himself in the Forum of Taurus, and turned the destroyed temple of Aphrodite into a manager house for the Praetorian Prefect ; Arcadius built a new forum named after himself on the Mese, near the walls of Constantine.

527–565: Istanbul in the Age of Justinian

The emperor Justinian I ( 527–565 ) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. It was from Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of the former Diocese of Africa set canvas on or about 21 June 533. Before their going, the ship of the commanding officer Belisarius was anchored in forepart of the Imperial castle, and the Patriarch offered supplications for the success of the endeavor. After the triumph, in 534, the Temple hoarded wealth of Jerusalem, looted by the Romans in 70 AD and taken to Carthage by the Vandals after their sack of Rome in 455, was brought to Constantinople and deposited for a clip, possibly in the Church of St. Polyeuctus, before being returned to Jerusalem in either the Church of the Resurrection or the New Church.

Throughout the late Roman and early Byzantine periods, Christianity was deciding cardinal inquiries of individuality, and the difference between the orthodox and the Monophysites became the cause of serious upset, expressed through commitment to the horse-racing parties of the Blues and the Greens. The zealots of the Blues and the Greens were said to impact uncut facial hair, caput hair shaved at the forepart and adult long at the dorsum, and wide-sleeved adventitias tight at the carpus ; and to organize packs to prosecute in night-time muggings and street force. At last these upsets took the signifier of a major rebellion of 532, known as the `` Nika '' public violences ( from the battle-cry of `` Victory! '' of those involved ) .

Fires started by the Nika rioters consumed Constantine 's basilica of Hagia Sophia ( Holy Wisdom ) , the metropolis 's chief church, which lay to the North of the Augustaeum. Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to replace it with a new and uncomparable Hagia Sophia. This was the great cathedral of the Orthodox Church, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God entirely, and which was straight connected to the castle so that the imperial household could go to services without go throughing through the streets. The dedication took topographic point on 26 December 537 in the presence of the emperor, who exclaimed, `` O Solomon, I have outdone thee! '' Hagia Sophia was served by 600 people including 80 priests, and cost 20,000 lbs of gold to construct.

Justinian besides had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles built by Constantine with a new church under the same dedication. This was designed in the signifier of an equal-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful mosaics. This church was to stay the burial topographic point of the Emperors from Constantine himself until the eleventh century. When the metropolis fell to the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to do room for the grave of Mehmet II the Conqueror. Justinian was besides concerned with other facets of the metropolis 's reinforced environment, passing against the maltreatment of Torahs forbiding edifice within 100 pess ( 30 m ) of the sea forepart, in order to protect the position.

Survival, 565–717: Istanbul during the Byzantine Dark Ages

In the early seventh century, the Avars and subsequently the Bulgars overwhelmed much of the Balkans, endangering Constantinople to assail from the West. Simultaneously, the Iranian Sassanids overwhelmed the Prefecture of the East and penetrated deep into Anatolia. Heraclius, boy to the exarch of Africa, set canvas for the metropolis and assumed the purple. He found the military state of affairs so desperate that he is said at first to hold contemplated retreating the imperial capital to Carthage, but relented after the people of Constantinople begged him to remain. The citizens lost their right to liberate grain in 618 when Heraclius realised that the metropolis no longer could be supplied from Egypt as a consequence of the Iranian wars: the population dropped well in size as a consequence.

While the metropolis withstood a besieging by the Sasanids and Avars in 626, Heraclius campaigned deep into Iranian district and briefly restored the position quo in 628, when the Persians surrendered all their conquerings. However, farther besiegings followed in the class of onslaughts from the Arabs, a first from 674 to 678, and a 2nd from 717 to 718. At this clip the Theodosian Walls kept the metropolis impregnable from the land, while a freshly discovered incendiary substance known as `` Grecian Fire '' allowed the Byzantine naval forces to destruct the Arab fleets and maintain the metropolis supplied. In the 2nd besieging, the Second swayer of Bulgaria, Khan Tervel ( besides called St. Triveliy ) rendered decisive aid, mostly due to him the metropolis was saved ; he was called Saviour of Europe.

717–1025: Istanbul during the Macedonian Renaissance

Theodora, widow of the Emperor Theophilus ( died 842 ) , acted as trustee during the minority of her boy Michael III, who was said to hold been introduced to dissolute wonts by her brother Bardas. When Michael assumed power in 856, he became known for inordinate inebriation, appeared in the hippodrome as a charioteer and burlesqued the spiritual emanations of the clergy. He removed Theodora from the Great Palace to the Carian Palace and subsequently to the monastery of Gastria, but, after the decease of Bardas, she was released to populate in the castle of St Mamas ; she besides had a rural abode at the Anthemian Palace, where Michael was assassinated in 867.

In 980, the emperor Basil II received an unusual gift from Prince Vladimir of Kiev: 6,000 Varangian warriors, which Basil formed into a new escort known as the Varangian Guard. They were known for their fierceness, honor, and trueness. It is said that, in 1038, they were dispersed in winter quarters in the Thracesian subject when one of their figure attempted to go against a countrywoman, but in the battle she seized his blade and killed him ; alternatively of taking retaliation, nevertheless, his companions applauded her behavior, compensated her with all his ownerships, and exposed his organic structure without burial as if he had committed self-destruction. However, following the decease of an Emperor, they became known besides for loot in the Imperial castles. Subsequently in the eleventh Century the Varangian Guard became dominated by Anglo-saxons who preferred this manner of life to subjection by the new Norman male monarchs of England.

The Book of the Eparch, which dates to the tenth century, gives a elaborate image of the metropolis 's commercial life and its organisation at that clip. The corporations in which the shopkeepers of Constantinople were organised were supervised by the Eparch, who regulated such affairs as production, monetary values, import, and export. Each club had its ain monopoly, and shopkeepers might non belong to more than one. It is an impressive testament to the strength of tradition how small these agreements had changed since the office, so known by the Latin version of its rubric, had been set up in 330 to mirror the urban prefecture of Rome.

In the 8th and 9th centuries, the iconoclast motion caused serious political agitation throughout the Empire. The emperor Leo III issued a edict in 726 against images, and ordered the devastation of a statue of Christ over one of the doors of the Chalke, an act that was ferociously resisted by the citizens. Constantine V convoked a church council in 754, which condemned the worship of images, after which many hoarded wealths were broken, burned, or painted over with word pictures of trees, birds or animate beings: One beginning refers to the church of the Holy Virgin at Blachernae as holding been transformed into a `` fruit shop and aviary '' . Following the decease of her boy Leo IV in 780, the empress Irene restored the fear of images through the bureau of the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

1025–1081: Istanbul after Basil II

In the late eleventh century calamity struck with the unexpected and black licking of the imperial ground forcess at the Battle of Manzikert in Armenia in 1071. The Emperor Romanus Diogenes was captured. The peace footings demanded by Alp Arslan, grand Turk of the Seljuk Turks, were non inordinate, and Romanus accepted them. On his release, nevertheless, Romanus found that enemies had placed their ain campaigner on the throne in his absence ; he surrendered to them and suffered decease by anguish, and the new swayer, Michael VII Ducas, refused to honor the pact. In response, the Turks began to travel into Anatolia in 1073. The prostration of the old defensive system meant that they met no resistance, and the imperium 's resources were distracted and squandered in a series of civil wars. Thousands of Turkoman tribesmen crossed the unguarded frontier and moved into Anatolia. By 1080, a immense country had been lost to the Empire, and the Turks were within striking distance of Constantinople.

1081–1185: Istanbul under the Comneni

With the Restoration of steadfast cardinal authorities, the imperium became fantastically affluent. The population was lifting ( estimations for Constantinople in the twelfth century vary from some 100,000 to 500,000 ) , and towns and metropoliss across the kingdom flourished. Meanwhile, the volume of money in circulation dramatically increased. This was reflected in Constantinople by the building of the Blachernae castle, the creative activity of superb new plants of art, and general prosperity at this clip: an addition in trade, made possible by the growing of the Italian city states, may hold helped the growing of the economic system. It is certain that the Venetians and others were active bargainers in Constantinople, doing a populating out of transporting goods between the Crusader Kingdoms of Outremer and the West, while besides merchandising extensively with Byzantium and Egypt. The Venetians had mills on the north side of the Golden Horn, and big Numberss of westerners were present in the metropolis throughout the twelfth century. Toward the terminal of Manuel I Komnenos 's reign, the figure of aliens in the metropolis reached about 60,000–80,000 people out of a entire population of about 400,000 people. In 1171, Constantinople besides contained a little community of 2,500 Jews. In 1182, all Latin ( Western European ) dwellers of Constantinople were massacred.

1185–1261: Istanbul during the Imperial Exile

On 25 July 1197, Constantinople was struck by a terrible fire which burned the Latin One-fourth and the country around the Gate of the Droungarios ( Turkish: Odun Kapısı ) on the Golden Horn. Nevertheless, the devastation wrought by the 1197 fire paled in comparing with that brought by the Crusaders. In the class of a secret plan between Philip of Swabia, Boniface of Montferrat and the Doge of Venice, the Fourth Crusade was, despite apostolic exclusion, diverted in 1203 against Constantinople, apparently advancing the claims of Alexius, boy of the deposed emperor Isaac. The reigning emperor Alexius III had made no readying. The Crusaders occupied Galata, broke the defensive concatenation protecting the Golden Horn and entered the seaport, where on 27 July they breached the sea walls: Alexius III fled. But the new Alexius IV found the Treasury inadequate, and was unable to do good the wagess he had promised to his western Alliess. Tension between the citizens and the Latin soldiers increased. In January 1204, the protovestiarius Alexius Murzuphlus provoked a public violence, it is presumed, to intimidate Alexius IV, but whose merely consequence was the devastation of the great statue of Athena, the work of Phidias, which stood in the principal forum confronting West.

In February, the people rose once more: Alexius IV was imprisoned and executed, and Murzuphlus took the purple as Alexius V. He made some effort to mend the walls and organize the people, but at that place had been no chance to convey in military personnels from the states and the guards were demoralised by the revolution. An onslaught by the Crusaders on 6 April failed, but a 2nd from the Golden Horn on 12 April succeeded, and the encroachers poured in. Alexius V fled. The Senate met in Hagia Sophia and offered the Crown to Theodore Lascaris, who had married into the Angelid household, but it was excessively late. He came out with the Patriarch to the Golden Milestone before the Great Palace and addressed the Varangian Guard. Then the two of them slipped off with many of the aristocracy and embarked for Asia. By the following twenty-four hours the Doge and the taking Franks were installed in the Great Palace, and the metropolis was given over to plunder for three yearss.

“For nine centuries, ” he goes on, “the great metropolis had been the capital of Christian civilization. It was filled with plants of art that had survived from ancient Greece and with the chef-d'oeuvres of its ain keen craftsmen. The Venetians. seized hoarded wealths and carried them off to decorate. their town. But the Frenchmen and Flemings were filled with a lecherousness for devastation. They rushed in a ululation rabble down the streets and through the houses, snaping up everything that glittered and destructing whatever they could non transport, hesitating merely to slay or to ravish, or to interrupt unfastened the wine-cellars.. Neither monasteries nor churches nor libraries were spared. In Hagia Sophia itself, drunken soldiers could be seen rupturing down the satiny hangings and drawing the great Ag iconostasis to pieces, while sacred books and icons were trampled under pes. While they drank happily from the altar-vessels a cocotte set herself on the Patriarch’s throne and began to sing a bawdy Gallic vocal. Nuns were ravished in their convents. Palaces and huts likewise were entered and wrecked. Hurt adult females and kids lay deceasing in the streets. For three yearss the ghastly scenes. continued, till the immense and beautiful metropolis was a shambles.. When. order was restored, . citizens were tortured to do them uncover the goods that they had contrived to conceal.

The Latins took over at least 20 churches and 13 monasteries, most conspicuously the Hagia Sophia, which became the cathedral of the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. It is to these that E.H. Swift attributed the building of a series of winging buttresses to shore up the walls of the church, which had been weakened over the centuries by temblor shudders. However, this act of care is an exclusion: for the most portion, the Latin residents were excessively few to keep all of the edifices, either secular and sacred, and many became marks for hooliganism or dismantlement. Bronze and lead were removed from the roofs of abandoned edifices and melted down and sold to supply money to the inveterate under-funded Empire for defence and to back up the tribunal ; Deno John Geanokoplos writes that `` it may good be that a division is suggested here: Latin laypersons stripped secular edifices, clerics, the churches. '' Buildings were non the lone marks of functionaries looking to raise financess for the destitute Latin Empire: the monumental sculptures which adorned the Hippodrome and fora of the metropolis were pulled down and melted for mintage. `` Among the chef-d'oeuvres destroyed, writes Talbot, `` were a Herakles attributed to the fourth-century B.C. sculpturer Lysippos, and monumental figures of Hera, Paris, and Helen. ''

1261–1453: Palaiologan Era and the Fall of Constantinople

Although Constantinople was retaken by Michael VIII Palaiologos, the Empire had lost many of its cardinal economic resources, and struggled to last. The castle of Blachernae in the north-west of the metropolis became the chief Imperial abode, with the old Great Palace on the shores of the Bosporus traveling into diminution. When Michael VIII captured the metropolis, its population was 35,000 people, but, by the terminal of his reign, he had succeeded in increasing the population to about 70,000 people. The Emperor achieved this by citing former occupants holding fled the metropolis when the reformers captured it, and by relocating Greeks from the late reconquered Peloponnese to the capital. In 1347, the Black Death spread to Constantinople. In 1453, when the Ottoman Turks captured the metropolis, it contained about 50,000 people.

1453–1922: Ottoman Kostantiniyye

Mehmed’s chief concern with Constantinople had to make with reconstructing the city’s defences and population. Constructing undertakings were commenced instantly after the conquering, which included the fix of the walls, building of the bastion, and constructing a new castle. Mehmed issued orders across his imperium that Muslims, Christians, and Jews should resettle the metropolis ; he demanded that five 1000s families needed to be transferred to Constantinople by September. From all over the Islamic imperium, captives of war and deported people were sent to the metropolis: these people were called `` Sürgün '' in Turkish ( Grecian: σουργούνιδες ) . Two centuries subsequently, Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi gave a list of groups introduced into the metropolis with their several beginnings. Even today, many quarters of Istanbul, such as Aksaray, Çarşamba, bear the names of the topographic points of beginning of their dwellers. However, many people escaped once more from the metropolis, and there were several eruptions of pestilence, so that in 1459 Mehmet allowed the deported Greeks to come back to the metropolis.

Culture

Istanbul was the largest and richest urban centre in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Eastern Roman Empire, largely as a consequence of its strategic place commanding the trade paths between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. It would stay the capital of the eastern, Greek-speaking imperium for over a thousand old ages. At its extremum, approximately matching to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European metropolis, exercising a powerful cultural pull and ruling economic life in the Mediterranean. Visitors and merchandisers were particularly struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the metropolis, in peculiar, Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom: A Russian 14th-century traveller, Stephen of Novgorod, wrote, `` As for Hagia Sophia, the human head can neither state it nor do description of it. ''

It was particularly of import for continuing in its libraries manuscripts of Greek and Latin writers throughout a period when instability and upset caused their mass-destruction in western Europe and north Africa: On the metropolis 's autumn, 1000s of these were brought by refugees to Italy, and played a cardinal portion in exciting the Renaissance, and the passage to the modern universe. The cumulative influence of the metropolis on the West, over the many centuries of its being, is incalculable. In footings of engineering, art and civilization, every bit good as sheer size, Constantinople was without analogue anyplace in Europe for a thousand old ages.

International position

The metropolis provided a defense mechanism for the eastern states of the old Roman Empire against the barbaric invasions of the fifth century. The 18-meter-tall walls built by Theodosius II were, in kernel, inviolable to the savages coming from South of the Danube river, who found easier marks to the West instead than the richer states to the E in Asia. From the fifth century, the metropolis was besides protected by the Anastasian Wall, a 60-kilometer concatenation of walls across the Thracian peninsula. Many bookmans argue that these sophisticated munitions allowed the E to develop comparatively unmolested while Ancient Rome and the West collapsed. With the outgrowth of Christianity and the rise of Islam, Constantinople became the last bastion of Christian Europe, standing at the bow of Islamic enlargement, and driving its influence. As the Byzantine Empire was situated mediate the Islamic universe and the Christian West, so did Constantinople act as Europe’s foremost line-of-defence against Arab progresss in the 7th and 8th centuries. The metropolis, and the Empire, would finally fall to the Ottomans by 1453, but its enduring bequest had provided Europe centuries of revival following the prostration of Rome.

Architecture

The Byzantine Empire used Roman and Greek architectural theoretical accounts and manners to make its ain alone type of architecture. The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the transcripts taken from it throughout Europe. Particular illustrations include St Mark 's Basilica in Venice, the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the Slavic East. Besides, entirely in Europe until the 13th-century Italian guilder, the Empire continued to bring forth sound gold mintage, the bezant of Diocletian going the bezzant prized throughout the Middle Ages. Its metropolis walls were much imitated ( for illustration, see Caernarfon Castle ) and its urban substructure was furthermore a wonder throughout the Middle Ages, maintaining alive the art, accomplishment and proficient expertness of the Roman Empire. In the Ottoman period Islamic architecture and symbolism were used.

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