gÃ¶teborgs-posten, 28 July 2012
As an aspirant teenage in-between distance smuggler I one time dreamed of viing at the Olympics. I grew up in the aureate age of British in-between distance running in the 1970s and 1980s. My hero was Steve Ovett, the bad male child of British sports, arch challenger and arch contrast to Sebastian Coe, the smooth establishment figure, whose fate it ever was to go first a Conservative MP and so the organiser of the 2012 London games. I was ne'er either good plenty or dedicated adequate to do the class. But I have ne'er lost either my love for sports or my compulsion with the Olympics. I have, over the old ages, watched the Games from afar. Following hebdomad I will eventually go to an Olympics Games in individual, non, alas, as a rival, an aspiration which was ever more mirage than dream, but at least as a witness.
Even as the Games unfastened in London, the argument about whether they are good or bad for the metropolis, and the state, continues unabated. From that minute in 2005 when London beat Paris to win the right to present the 2012 Games â so, from even before so â there has emerged two sorts of responses to the âgreatest show on Earthâ . For some, the Games supply a agency of work outing many of Londonâs myriad societal jobs. For others, they exacerbate already bing jobs, and make a battery of new 1s. What has all excessively frequently been losing in this argument is what one time fuelled my dreams, what burns in all athletesâ psyches, what draws most witnesss to the spectacle â the bang of featuring competition.
London won the Games by assuring, as has virtually every other featuring event over the past three decennaries, to utilize them as an instrument of societal good. âThe most digesting bequest of the Olympicsâ , claimed the London Olympic command book, âwill be the regeneration of an full community for the direct benefit of everyone who lives thereâ . Yet, every bit early as 2003, a British authorities study Game Plan had concluded that âthe quantifiable grounds to back up each of the sensed benefits for mega events is weakâ . No modern Games has produced a bequest of regeneration. No independent academic survey has shown a nexus between the hosting of athleticss tourneies and economic development.
Olympics building is surely transforming the face of east London. The 200 acre Olympic Park, with the sports bowl, velodrome, and iconic Aquatic Centre, has remade what had been neglected industrial barren into London landmark. But the Olympic command has non, can non and will non renew the country in a manner that will transform the lives of local people, supplying them with decent occupations and lodging. Newham, the London borough in which most of the Olympic park prevarications, is one of the 10 most disadvantaged countries in Britain, has the worst unemployment rate in London and the highest degree of child poorness. No sum of Olympic building is traveling to alter that.
Making occupations, edifice houses, bettering wellness â all these are affairs for policy shapers, non athleticss decision makers. Over the past three decennaries, nevertheless, politicians have progressively looked to featuring and cultural undertakings as vehicles of societal alteration. Whether advancing a football tourney or edifice an art gallery, every major cultural undertaking these yearss seems defined as much by its societal ends as by its cultural promise. Having lost religion in traditional agencies of making occupations and transforming communities, policy shapers have begun to tailgate cultural undertakings. Equally, humanistic disciplines and athleticss decision makers have lost religions in their ability sell their undertakings on their ain footings, and so play along with the pretension that these undertakings are of import vehicles of societal alteration.
This discontent has merely been exacerbated by the cackhandedness of both the British authorities and the Olympic organizers, expressed in everything from the travesty over Games security to the fad over the particular âOlympic lanesâ . More serious has been the mobilization of the Games and the civilization of censoring that has accompanied it, from the arrangement of missiles on the roofs of residential blocks in East London to the forbiddance of stuff deemed unacceptable to the âOlympic familyâ . Yet, merely as the Games are non responsible for the failures of regeneration policy in east London, nor for the deficiency of occupations and lodging in the country, neither are they responsible for the turning mobilization of society in response to terrors about terrorist act, nor for a civilization that has long accepted the curtailment of free address and autonomies. The bumbling security and the junior-grade dictatorship is unpleasant and unacceptable. But, as anyone who has flown on a plane or spoken out in public in a manner deemed violative can certify, these are non new developments but extensions of bing tendencies. They need to be resisted. But we should non conceive of that without the Olympics, Britain would be any less policed or any more willing to digest free look.
In response to all this many have suggested that it would hold been better for Britain ne'er to hold command for the Games in the first topographic point. As the geographer Professor Michael Hall has put it, âinvestment in accessible and low-cost instruction, wellness and communications engineering, along with a diversified occupation creative activity scheme is far more likely to hold long-run benefits for urban economic and societal wellbeing than investing in elect mega-sports events.â That is true â but it is argument against London presenting the Games merely if you accept that the point of the Olympics is societal regeneration. What links the protagonists and the critics is a common position of the Olympics less as a featuring tourney than as a symbol of wider societal and political concerns. Supporters want to sell the Games as a vision of how to renew communities and advance societal good. Critics see the event as typifying much of what is incorrect with a society built on consumerism, corporate power and corruptness.
Sport and civilization have ever, of class, been symbolic of wider issues, looks of power battles and societal aspirations. But they are ne'er simply symbolic. If they were we would non be able to appreciate any artistic work or featuring accomplishment in its ain footings. The political and societal context of any cultural accomplishment - whether weâre speaking about the artistic luster of Renaissance Florence, which the Medicis viewed as political purchase in their battle against Papal power, or about the attention-getting modus operandis of gymnasts like Olga Korbut and Nadia Comenaci who in the 1970s transformed the subject against the background of the Cold War and the usage of athletics as a political arm - is of import. But those accomplishments besides stand on their ain virtue. And they have to be appreciated on their ain virtue, non simply by what they represent politically or socially.
It is true that the Olympics Games have become bloated and commercial, changeable through with political relations and riddled with corruptness. They have become vanity undertakings for decision makers and politicians. I wish the Games were smaller, simpler, cheaper. I wish we could be rid of the huffy circus that is the International Olympics Committee. Yet, for all that, I can non conceal my pleasance at London hosting the Games or my exhilaration at the chance of taking my place in the Olympic Stadium. For us punters the Games are both much less and much more than they are for the decision makers and the politicians, for the protagonists and the critics. The Games are about human art and endurance and dedication and glare. They are about ten-second operas and two-hour play. Most of all they are about what one might name the Bob Beamon minute â that minute in which a sportswoman or adult female transcends the mere nowadays and transforms our premises of what it is humanly possible to make, as Bob Beamon did with his amazing long leap at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. Beamon leapt 8.9m, crushing the old universe record by 55cm and puting a criterion that would non be bettered for 23 old ages. Nadia Comaneciâs twine of perfect 10s in Montreal in 1976. Michael Johnson spilling the 200m universe record in Atlanta, 1996. Haile Gebrselassieâs 10,000m triumph in Sidney in 2000, in which he ran the concluding 200m in an eye-watering 25.4 seconds. Michael Phelpâs draw of eight golds in the pool in Beijing. Usain Boltâs awesome, hideous, casual smashing of the field in his 100m triumph in Beijing 2008. Of these minutes are formed the existent bequest of the Olympic Games.
2.1. Identified Assorted Peoples / Administrations
Their chief maps are to jointly advice and supply confidence to the board ( MPA, 2006 ) . These stakeholders have different perceptual experiences as to what constitute success. While they all have different duties towards the success of the game, their single aims has to be met. It is deserving observing that their varying aims were good reconciled as per the game. Shared apprehension was created among them and rapprochement of aims was easy because one of the prevailing overarching purposes of both the UK authorities and IOC for the games is sustainability among the Consultant, the chief Contractor, the Sub-Contractor and the Supplier.
London 2012 Olympic Games
In 2012 London became the first metropolis to host the modern Games three times, holding antecedently been the site of the 1908 and 1948 Olympic Games. The metropolis was chosen as the 2012 host in a close 2005 International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) election, crushing runner-up Paris ( the heavy front-runner, which besides was trying to go the first three-time host ) by four ballots. Safety concerns dogged the London Olympics in the hebdomads before the gap ceremonials, for the private house that had been contracted to supply the Games’ security notified the British authorities that it could non supply as many guards as it had promised ( falling short by some 3,500 ) . The authorities was forced to direct in military forces and local constabulary as a makeshift step, but the Games proceeded with no major security issues, and the episode proved to be an embarrassment instead than a crisis. The London Games’ opening ceremonials proved to be one of the festival’s high spots. The luxuriant spectacle ( devised by movie manager Danny Boyle ) depicted the cultural and societal history of Britain and drew raves from attendants and telecasting viewing audiences, who were treated to an unexpected amusing bend by Queen Elizabeth II.
Like the Beijing Olympics, the London Games were dominated by two of the greatest Olympians of all clip: Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt and American swimmer Michael Phelps. By taking gold in both the 100-metre and 200-metre events, Bolt became the first adult male to win track’s two most esteemed dashs in back-to-back Olympiads. Phelps became the most-decorated jock in Olympic history by capturing six decorations ( including four golds ) to convey his life-time sum to 22. Overall, the U.S. won an Olympics-high 46 golds, which was the country’s best public presentation in a non-boycotted Olympics since the ill organized 1904 Games, where more than five-sixths of the rivals were Americans. Along with Phelps, American swimmers took place a great figure of those golds, notably adolescent esthesis Missy Franklin ( who won four golds, including both the 100-metre and 200-metre single backstroke ) and Phelps’s friendly rival Ryan Lochte ( victor of two golds and five entire decorations ) . The other major swimming narrative of the London Games was 16-year-old Ye Shiwen of China, who won the women’s 200-metre single potpourri ( IM ) and shattered the universe record while winning the 400-metre IM event. The star of the gymnastic exercises events was Gabrielle Douglas of the United States, who won the women’s single all-around gold and was a member of the gilded medal-winning U.S. squad.
The London Olympics concluding decoration rankings are provided in the tabular array. Final decoration rankings, London Olympic Games, 2012 rank state gold Ag bronze entire 1 United States 46 29 29 104 2 China 38 27 23 88 3 Russia 24 26 32 82 4 Great Britain 29 17 19 65 5 Germany 11 19 14 44 6 Japan 7 14 17 38 7 Australia 7 16 12 35 8 France 11 11 12 34 9 South Korea 13 8 7 28 9 Italy 8 9 11 28 11 Netherlands 6 6 8 20 11 Ukraine 6 5 9 20 13 Hungary 8 4 6 18 13 Canada 1 5 12 18 15 Spain 3 10 4 17 15 Brazil 3 5 9 17 17 Cuba 5 3 6 14 18 Kazakhstan 7 1 5 13 18 New Zealand 6 2 5 13 20 Iran 4 5 3 12 20 Jamaica 4 4 4 12 20 Belarus 2 5 5 12 23 Kenya 2 4 5 11 24 Czech Republic 4 3 3 10 24 Azerbaijan 2 2 6 10 24 Poland 2 2 6 10 27 Romania 2 5 2 9 27 Denmark 2 4 3 9 29 Sweden 1 4 3 8 29 Colombia 1 3 4 8 31 Ethiopia 3 1 3 7 31 Georgia 1 3 3 7 31 Mexico 1 3 3 7 34 North Korea 4 0 2 6 34 South Africa 3 2 1 6 34 Croatia 3 1 2 6 34 India 0 2 4 6 38 Turkey 2 2 1 5 38 Lithuania 2 1 2 5 38 Ireland 1 1 3 5 38 Mongolia 0 2 3 5 42 Switzerland 2 2 0 4 42 Norway 2 1 1 4 42 Argentina 1 1 2 4 42 Serbia 1 1 2 4 42 Slovenia 1 1 2 4 42 Trinidad and Tobago 1 0 3 4 42 Slovakia 0 1 3 4 49 Tunisia 1 1 1 3 49 Uzbekistan 1 0 2 3 49 Thailand 0 2 1 3 49 Armenia 0 1 2 3 49 Belgium 0 1 2 3 49 Finland 0 1 2 3 55 Dominican Republic 1 1 0 2 55 Latvia 1 0 1 2 55 Egypt 0 2 0 2 55 Bulgaria 0 1 1 2 55 Estonia 0 1 1 2 55 Indonesia 0 1 1 2 55 Malaysia 0 1 1 2 55 Puerto Rico 0 1 1 2 55 Taipei 0 1 1 2 55 Greece 0 0 2 2 55 Moldova 0 0 2 2 55 Qatar 0 0 2 2 55 Singapore 0 0 2 2 68 Algeria 1 0 0 1 68 Bahamas 1 0 0 1 68 Grenada 1 0 0 1 68 Uganda 1 0 0 1 68 Venezuela 1 0 0 1 68 Botswana 0 1 0 1 68 Cyprus 0 1 0 1 68 Gabon 0 1 0 1 68 Guatemala 0 1 0 1 68 Montenegro 0 1 0 1 68 Portugal 0 1 0 1 68 Afghanistan 0 0 1 1 68 Bahrain 0 0 1 1 68 Hong Kong 0 0 1 1 68 Kuwait 0 0 1 1 68 Morocco 0 0 1 1 68 Saudi Arabia 0 0 1 1 68 Tajikistan 0 0 1 1
London hosted the Olympic Games for the 3rd clip in 2012, but neither of the old could be considered normal host attempts. In the Games were originally awarded to Rome, which relinquished the duty in 1906 because of authorities support jobs, so exacerbated by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Thus the London 1908 organisers had merely 2 old ages to set on the Games but they did good, hosting the first truly modern Olympic Games, if one omits the. In London was chosen as host metropolis despite retrieving from World War II, its streets and edifices bombed out, and its citizens still on rations, of nutrient and other necessities. They have been called the Austerity Olympics, but once more London did their occupation and did it good.
The locales themselves won praise as they assisted the jocks in their assault on the record books. Multiple universe records were set at the velodrome, led by the British path bicyclers. The sports stadium path was considered really fast and even saw three universe records, rare any longer at the Olympics, as became the first adult male to better 1:41 for the, Jamaica broke its ain record for the, and the US adult females 's squad eliminated the 2nd oldest adult females 's grade on the books, the universe record set back in 1985 by a GDR squad. At the, the fast pool led to several universe records that had seemed intact one time the athletics had banned the fast skinsuits that grew popular in 2008, and returned to textile suits.
The dark started with, the favorite of the British media taking up to the Games, completing her 800 meters to win the. The boom from the British fans so increased and reverberated as Britain 's scored an disquieted triumph in the. A few proceedingss subsequently, the crowd grew even louder in the when Farah won that gold decoration, Britain making gold three times within an hr, as the sound within Olympic Stadium could be heard at other locales within the Park, and likely even at Old Trafford. One hebdomad subsequently, on the concluding dark of sports competition, Farah came back to finish the 5-10K two-base hit, a fitting stoping on another Saturday to the cheers of his adoring countrymen.
On the athleticss Fieldss, the biggest contention came in badminton – who woulda thunk it? In the concluding lucifers of adult females 's doubles round-robin drama, Chinese, Korean, and Indonesian braces, already qualified to progress, engaged in a parody to throw their lucifers to derive a better draw in the knock-out unit of ammunitions. Making no pretence of seeking to win, the crowd booed and the functionaries spoke to them, beging them to do their best attempts, to no help. The following twenty-four hours, the functionaries reacted further, unfiting all eight participants and four squads, and progressing four other squads to the single-elimination tourney.
London 2012: The Opening Ceremony
Last dark the 2012 Summer Olympics kicked off with a immense Opening Ceremony in London 's new Olympic Stadium, an event watched on telecasting by an estimated 1 billion viewing audiences. Performances paid testimonial to British heritage and civilization, from agricultural beginnings through pop civilization successes like the Beatles and J.K. Rowling. Contingents from more than 200 states marched in the jocks parade, and the eventide was capped off by the lighting of the Olympic Cauldron, a public presentation by Paul McCartney, and a immense pyrotechnic show. Collected below is merely a glance of last dark 's ceremonial, as the 2012 Olympics are now underway.
Over clip the Olympics have become bigger. In old times, adult females were non allowed to vie, but now everyone is allowed. The Winter Games were created for ice and snow athleticss. The Paralympic Games were created for jocks with physical disablements. As good, the Olympics became bigger with the add-on of the Youth Olympic Games for teenage jocks. World War I and World War II led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Games. As the decision-making organic structure, the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) is responsible for taking the host metropolis for each Olympic Games. The IOC is besides responsible for taking what athleticss are in the games.
Ancient Olympic gamess
The Olympics of Ancient Greece featured chiefly athletic but besides combat and chariot rushing events. During the Olympic Games all battles among the take parting city states were postponed until the games were finished. The beginning of these Olympics is shrouded in enigma and legend Harmonizing to fable, it was Heracles who foremost called the Games `` Olympic '' and established the usage of keeping them every four old ages. The most widely recognized day of the month for the beginning of the Ancient Olympics is 776BC ; this is based on letterings, found at Olympia, of the victors of a foot race held every four old ages get downing in 776BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon ( dwelling of a jumping event, discus and javelin throws, a pes race and wrestle ) , packaging, wrestle, and equestrian events.
Grecian involvement in conveying back the Olympic Games began with the Greek War of Independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1821. It was foremost proposed by poet and newspaper editor Panagiotis Soutsos in his verse form `` Dialogue of the Dead '' , published in 1833. Evangelis Zappas, a affluent Greek-Romanian altruist, first wrote to King Otto of Greece, in 1856, offering to fund a lasting resurgence of the Olympic Games. Zappas sponsored the first Olympic Games in 1859, which was held in Athens. Athletes from Greece and the Ottoman Empire participated. Zappas funded the Restoration of the ancient Panathenaic bowl so that it could host all future Olympic Games.
The Panathinaiko Stadium hosted Olympics in 1870 and 1875. Thirty 1000 witnesss attended that Games in 1870, although no official attending records are available for the 1875 Games. In 1890, after go toing the Olympic Games of the Wenlock Olympian Society, Baron Pierre de Coubertin created the International Olympic Committee. Coubertin built on the thoughts and work of Brookes and Zappas with the purpose of making an Olympic Games that would happen every four old ages in a different state. He presented these thoughts during the first meeting of the freshly created International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) . This meeting was held from June 16 to June 23, 1894, at the Sorbonne University in Paris. On the last twenty-four hours of the meeting, it was decided that the first Olympic Games, to be controlled by the IOC, would take topographic point two old ages subsequently in Athens. The IOC elected the Grecian author Demetrius Vikelas as its first president.
The first Games held under the IOC was hosted in the Panathenaic bowl in Athens in 1896. These Games brought 14 states and 241 jocks who competed in 43 events. Zappas and his cousin Konstantinos Zappas had left the Grecian authorities money to fund future Olympic Games. This money was used to pay for the 1896 Games. George Averoff paid for the renovation of the bowl in readying for the Games. The Grecian authorities besides provided money, which was paid back through the sale of tickets. Money was besides paid back through the sale of the first Olympic commemorative cast set.
Changes and versions
Following the success of the 1896 Games, the Olympics entered a period of stagnancy that threatened their endurance. The Olympic Games held at the Paris Exposition in 1900 and the World 's Fair at St. Louis in 1904 were side-shows. The Games at Paris did non hold a bowl, nevertheless this was the first clip adult females took portion in the games. The St. Louis Games hosted 650 jocks, but 580 were from the United States. The homogenous nature of these jubilations was a low point for the Olympic Movement. The Games rebounded when the Intercalated Games ( alleged because they were the 2nd Games held within an Olympiad, a period of clip enduring four old ages ) were held in Athens. These Games are non officially recognized by the IOC and no Intercalated Games have been held since. These Games were hosted at the Panathenaic bowl in Athens. The games attracted an international field of participants, and generated great public involvement.
The Winter Olympics were created to have snow and ice athleticss that were non portion of the Summer Games. Figure skating ( in 1908 and 1920 ) and ice hockey ( in 1920 ) were featured as Olympic events at the Summer Olympics. The IOC wanted to spread out this list of athleticss to embrace other winter activities. At the 1921 Olympic Congress, in Lausanne, it was decided to keep a winter version of the Olympic Games. A winter athleticss hebdomad ( it was really 11days ) was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France ; this event was the first Winter Olympic Games. The IOC ruled that the Winter Games to be celebrated every four old ages on the same twelvemonth as the summer games. This form continued until the 1992 Games in Albertville, France. After this, get downing with the 1994 Games, the Winter Olympics were held on the 3rd twelvemonth of each Olympiad.
Get downing in 2010, Youth Games aid to develop immature jocks for the Olympic Games. Athletes between the ages of 14 and 18 compete. The Youth Olympic Games were created by IOC president Jacques Rogge in 2001 and approved during the 119th meeting of the IOC. The first Summer Youth Games were held in Singapore from 14–26 August 2010. The first Winter Games will be hosted in Innsbruck, Austria, in 2012. These Games are shorter than the Olympic Games. The summer version will last twelve yearss and the winter version will last nine yearss. The IOC will let 3,500 jocks and 875 functionaries to take portion at the Summer Youth Games. 970 jocks and 580 functionaries will take portion at the Winter Youth Games. The athleticss to be played will be the same as at the Olympic Games.
After the artistic part of the ceremonial, the jocks parade into the bowl grouped by state. Greece is traditionally the first state to come in in order to honour the beginnings of the Olympics. Nations so come in the bowl alphabetically harmonizing to the host state 's chosen linguistic communication. The host state 's jocks are ever the last to come in. During the 2004 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in Athens, Greece. The Grecian flag entered the bowl foremost and last. When it came in to the bowl for the 2nd clip it was followed by the jocks. Addresss are so given officially opening the Games. Finally the jocks curse said. Following this the Olympic torch is brought into the bowl and passed on until it reaches the concluding torch bearer who lights the caldron.
The shutting ceremonial of the Olympic Games takes topographic point after all featuring events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each take parting state enter the bowl. They are followed by the jocks who enter together without any national differentiation. Three national flags are hoisted while the corresponding national anthems are played. The flag of Greece to honour the place of birth of the Olympic Games. The flag of the current host state. The flag of the state hosting the following Summer or Winter Olympic Games is besides flown. The president of the forming commission and the IOC president make their shutting addresss. The Games are officially closed and the Olympic fire is put out. In what is known as the Antwerp Ceremony ( as this tradition was started in Antwerp ) , the city manager of the metropolis that organized the Games transfers a particular Olympic flag to the president of the IOC. The president so passes it on to the city manager of the metropolis hosting the following Olympic Games. After these mandatory elements, the following host state briefly introduces itself with artistic shows of dance and theatre representative of its civilization.
Amateurism and professionalism
The exclusion of professionals caused several contentions throughout the history of the modern Olympics. The 1912 Olympic pentathlon and decathlon title-holder Jim Thorpe was stripped of his decorations when it was discovered that he had played semi-professional baseball before the Olympics. His decorations were restored by the IOC in 1983 on compassionate evidences. As category construction evolved through the twentieth century, the definition of the recreational jock as an blue gentleman became out-of-date. The coming of the state-sponsored `` full-time amateur jock '' of the Eastern Bloc states further eroded the political orientation of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western states at a disadvantage. Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional regulations sing amateurism.
Get downing in the 1970s, amateurism demands were bit by bit phased out of the Olympic Charter. After the 1988 Games, the IOC decided to do all professional jocks eligible for the Olympics, capable to the blessing of the IFs. As of 2004, the lone athletics in which no professionals compete is packaging, although even this requires a definition of amateurism based on battle regulations instead than on payment, as some drawerss receive hard currency awards from their National Olympic Committees. In work forces 's football ( association football ) , merely three professional participants over the age of 23 are eligible to take part per squad in the Olympic tourney.
There have been many states intentionally losing the Olympics in order to do political statements. The most celebrated illustrations of states losing the Olympics happened in 1980 and 1984. The Cold War oppositions missed each other 's Games. 65 states refused to vie at the Moscow Olympics in 1980 because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union and 14 of its Eastern Bloc spouses ( except Romania ) countered by losing the Los Angeles Olympics of 1984. The states stated that they could non vouch the safety of their jocks. Soviet functionaries defended their determination to retreat from the Games by stating that `` chauvinistic sentiments and an anti-Soviet craze are being whipped up in the United States '' .
Individual jocks have besides used the Olympic phase to advance their ain political docket. At the 1968 Summer Olympics, in Mexico City, two American path and field jocks, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, who finished foremost and 3rd in the 200meter dash race, performed the Black Power salutation on the dais. The smuggler up Peter Norman wore an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge in support of Smith and Carlos. IOC President Avery Brundage so told the United States, to either direct the two jocks home or withdraw the path and field squad. The United States chose to direct the brace place.
Use of public presentation heightening drugs
In the early twentieth century, many Olympic jocks began utilizing drugs to better their athletic abilities. For illustration, the victor of the endurance contest at the 1904 Games, Thomas J. Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his manager. The lone Olympic decease linked to doping happened at the Rome Games of 1960. During the cycling route race, Danish bicycler Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bike and subsequently died. A medical examiner 's enquiry found that he was under the influence of pep pills. By the mid-1960s, athleticss federations were get downing to censor the usage of public presentation heightening drugs. The IOC did similarly in 1967. The IOC created the World Anti-Doping Agency in 1999. The IOC-established drug proving regimen ( now known as the Olympic Standard ) has set the worldwide benchmark that other featuring federations around the universe effort to emulate. The first Olympic jock to prove positive for the usage of public presentation heightening drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze decoration for intoxicant usage.
The Olympics have non brought enduring peace to the universe, even during the Games. Three Olympic Games were non held due to war. The 1916 Games were cancelled because of World War I, and the summer and winter games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled because of World War II. Terrorism has besides threatened the Olympic Games. In 1972, when the Summer Games were held in Munich, West Germany, 11 members of the Israeli Olympic squad were taken surety by the terrorist group Black September. This event is now known as the Munich slaughter. The terrorists killed two of the jocks shortly after they had taken them surety and killed the other nine during a failed deliverance effort. A German constabulary officer and 5 terrorists besides died. During the Summer Olympics in 1996 in Atlanta, a bomb was detonated at the Centennial Olympic Park, which killed 2 and injured 111 others. Eric Robert Rudolph is presently functioning a life sentence for the bombardment.
Host states and metropoliss
The host metropolis for an Olympic Games is chosen seven old ages in front of the event. The procedure of choice is carried out in two stages that span a biennial period. The procedure starts when a metropolis desiring to host the games applies to its state 's Olympic group. If more than one metropolis from the same state gives a proposal to its NOC, the national group chooses which metropolis will run for host. The first measure one time the deadline passes ( To state the IOC that you want to keep the Games ) , is to inquire the metropoliss to finish a questionnaire which covers many cardinal points in the organisation of the Olympic Games. The rating of the filled questionnaires by a group provides the IOC with an thought of each metropoliss project and their possible to host the Games. On the footing of this rating, the IOC chooses the appliers that will continue to the campaigning phase.
By 2016, the Olympic Games will hold been hosted by 44 metropoliss in 23 states. The United States has hosted four Summer and four Winter Olympics, more than any other state. Among Summer Olympics host states, the United Kingdom has been the host of two Games, and will host its 3rd Olympics in 2012 in London. Germany, Australia, France, and Greece are the other states to hold hosted the Summer Olympics twice. Among host metropoliss, merely Los Angeles, Paris, Athens and London have played host to the Olympic Games more than one time, with each keeping that honor twice. With the 2012 Games scheduled to take topographic point in London, the British capital will keep the differentiation of hosting the modern Olympics Games three times, more than any other metropolis.
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