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APJ Abdul Kalam Essay 1 ( 100 words )

APJ Abdul Kalam is popularly known as Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. He lives in Indian people’s bosom as the Missile Man of India and People’s President. Actually he was a great scientist who invented many new innovations. He was the former President of India who born on 15th of October in 1931 ( in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu ) nevertheless died on 27th of July in 2015 ( in Shillong, Meghalaya, India ) . His male parent name was Jainulabudeen and female parent name was Ashiamma. His full name was Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam. He ne'er got married to anyone. He was a great adult male who has been awareded with the awards like Bharat Ratna ( in 1997 ) , Padma Vibhushan ( in 1990 ) , Padma Bhushan ( in 1981 ) , Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration ( in 1997 ) , Ramanujan Award ( in 2000 ) , King Charles II Medal ( in 2007 ) , International von Karman Wings Award ( in 2009 ) , Hoover Medal ( in 2009 ) , etc.

APJ Abdul Kalam Essay 3 ( 200 words )

The full name of Dr. APJ abdul Kalam was Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam. He is popularly known as the Missile Man of India and People’s President. He was born in a hapless Tamil Muslim household on 15th of October in 1931 at Rameshwaram, Ramnad territory of Madras presidential term under British India ( presently in Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu ) . He was a great scientist who besides served the state as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. After finishing his term of presidential term, he returned to the civilian life of authorship, instruction, and public service. He worked at assorted main places at ISRO and DRDO so became a Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government Of India as a Cabinet Minister.

APJ Abdul Kalam Essay 4 ( 250 words )

He joined the DRDO ( Defense Research and Development Organization ) as a scientist where he designed a little chopper for the Indian Army. He besides worked under Dr. Vikram Sarabhai as portion of INCOSPAR commission. Subsequently, he joined the Indian Space Research Organization ( ISRO ) in 1969 as undertaking manager of India’s foremost autochthonal Satellite Launch Vehicle ( SLV-III ) . Because of his great parts for the development of ballistic missiles in India, he will be everlastingly known as the “Missile Man of India” . The successful Pokhran-II atomic trials of 1998 have besides involved his of import function.

APJ Abdul Kalam Essay 5 ( 300 words )

The full name of APJ Abdul Kalam was Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam. He has been the aglow star in the Indian history as the Missile Man and People’s President. He was born on 15th of October in 1931 in Tamil Nadu. His life was full of battle nevertheless has been an inspiration to the new coevals of India. He was a individual who dreamed about India of being a developed state. For which he has quoted that “You have to woolgather before your dreams can come true” . His huge involvement in flight made him able to carry through his dream of being an Aeronautical Engineering. Alternatively of being from a hapless household, he ne'er discontinued his instruction. He has completed his graduation in Science from St. Joseph’s College in Tiruchirappalli and Aeronautical Engineering from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1954.

APJ Abdul Kalam Essay 6 ( 400 words )

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam was a scientist who subsequently became the 11th President of India and served the state from 2002 to 2007. He was the most well-thought-of individual of the state as he contributed vastly to the state as a scientist and as a president. His parts to the Indian Space Research Organization are unforgettable. Numerous undertakings were headed by him such as launch of the Rohini-1, Project Devil and Project Valiant, developing missiles ( under missions Agni and Prithvi ) , etc. For his great parts in bettering the atomic power of India, he is popularly known as the “Missile Man of India” . He has been honored with the highest civilian awards for his dedicated plants. After finishing his service to the authorities of India as President, he served the state as a visiting professor at assorted valued institutes and universities.

He was born to the Jainulabdeen and Ashiamma on 15th of October in 1931. The fiscal conditions of his household was small hapless so he started back uping his household financially in his early age. He started gaining money to back up his household nevertheless ne'er gave up on his instruction. He completed his graduation in 1954 from Saint Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli and aerospace technology from Madras Institute of Technology. After his graduation, he joined Aeronautical Development Establishment of Defense Research and Development Organization ( DRDO ) as a main scientist nevertheless ; shortly he shifted to the Indian Space Research Organization as a undertaking manager of India’s foremost autochthonal Satellite Launch Vehicle. He besides worked as a Chief Executive of Integrated Guided Missile Development Program which involved in coincident development of a frisson of missiles.

He wrote many inspirational books such as “India 2020” , “Ignited Minds” , “Mission India” , “The Luminous Sparks” , “Inspiring Thoughts” , etc. In order to crush the corruptness in state he launched a mission for young persons named “What Can I Give Movement” . He served as visiting professor in assorted universities and institutes of the state ( Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad and Indore, etc ) , as Chancellor of Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram, JSS University ( Mysore ) , Aerospace Engineering at Anna University ( Chennai ) , etc. He has been awarded with the awards like Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan, Bharat Ratna, Indira Gandhi Award, Veer Savarkar Award, Ramanujan Award and many more.

ஏ . பி . ஜே . அப்துல் கலாம்

1960 ஆம் ஆண்டு வானூர்தி அபிவிருத்தி அமைத்தல் பிரிவில் ( DRDO ) விஞ்ஞானியாக தன்னுடைய ஆராய்ச்சி வாழ்க்கையைத் தொடங்கிய அப்துல் கலாம் , ஒரு சிறிய ஹெலிகாப்டரை இந்திய ராணுவத்திற்காக வடிவமைத்து கொடுத்தார் . பின்னர் , இந்திய விண்வெளி ஆராய்ச்சி கூடத்தில் ( ISRO ) தனது ஆராய்ச்சிப்பணிகளைத் தொடர்ந்த அவர் , துணைக்கோள் ஏவுகணைக் குழுவில் ( SLV ) செயற்கைக்கோள் ஏவுதலில் முக்கிய பங்காற்றினார் . 1980 ஆம் ஆண்டு SLV -III ராக்கெட்டைப் பயன்படுத்தி ரோகினி-I என்ற துணைக்கோளை வெற்றிகரமாக விண்ணில் ஏவச்செய்தார் . இது அவருக்கு மட்டுமல்லாமல் , இந்தியாவிற்கே ஒரு சாதனையாக அமைந்தது . இத்தகைய வியக்கதக்க செயலைப் பாராட்டி மத்திய அரசு இவருக்கு 1981 ஆம் ஆண்டு இந்தியாவின் மிகப் பெரிய விருதான “பத்ம பூஷன்” விருது வழங்கி கௌரவித்தது . 1963 ஆம் ஆண்டு முதல் 1983 ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை , இந்திய விண்வெளி ஆராய்ச்சி கூடத்தில் பல பணிகளை சிறப்பாக செய்த இவர் , 1999 ஆம் ஆண்டு “பொக்ரான் அணு ஆயுத சோதனையில்” முக்கிய பங்காற்றியுள்ளார் . இந்தியாவை அணு ஆயுத வல்லரசாக மாற்றிய ஏ.பி.ஜே அப்துல் கலாம் , இதுவரை ஐந்து ஏவுகணை திட்டங்களில் பணிபுரிந்துள்ளார் . அவர் , அனைவராலும் இந்திய ராணுவ ராக்கெட் படைப்பின் பிதாவாக போற்றப்படுகிறார் .

2002 ஆம் ஆண்டு நடந்த குடியரசுத் தலைவர் தேர்தலில் வெற்றி பெற்று , இந்தியாவின் 11 வது குடியரசு தலைவராக ஜூலை 25 ஆம் நாள் 2002 ல் பதவியேற்றார் . குடியரசு தலைவராவதற்கு முன் , இந்தியாவின் மிகப்பெரிய விருதான “பாரத ரத்னா விருது” மத்திய அரசு இவருக்கு வழங்கி கௌரவித்தது . மேலும் , “பாரத ரத்னா” விருது பெற்ற மூன்றாவது குடியரசு தலைவர் என்ற பெருமையைப் பெற்றார் . 2007 ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை குடியரசுத் தலைவராக இருந்த இவர் “மக்களின் ஜனாதிபதி” என்று அனைவராலும் அன்போடு அழைக்கப்பட்டார் . 2007 ஆம் ஆண்டு குடியரசுத் தேர்தலில் மீண்டும் போட்டியிட நினைத்த கலாம் , பிறகு பல காரணங்களால் அந்த தேர்தலில் போட்டியிட போவதில்லை என முடிவு செய்து விலகினார் .

Essay on apj abdul kalam in 200 words in tamil

All the APJ Abdul Kalam essay are written utilizing really simple words under assorted words bound He was born on 15th of October in 1931 at Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and died on 27th of July in 2015 at APJ Abdul Kalam Essay 3 ( 200 words ) . Feb 7, 2016 Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Short Essay - The Missile Man Kalam Essay. Number of words, 200 words He was born in a Tamil Muslim household. Sep 14, 2015 Short Essay about Dr. Abdul Kalam – The Missile Man: essay on apj abdul kalam in 200 words ; 10 lines on apj abdul kalam in English ; abdul 253 Wordss Short life of President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on October 15, 1931 at Dhanushkothi in the temple town Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu. Aug 26, 2015 Subject: Fifteen sentences Essay/Speech on “APJ Abdul Kalam” Mode: Medium from the celebrated Rameswaram temple in Tamil Nadu to Dhanushkodi. Manner: Easy, Medium Total Sentence- 13, 336 words Contributed By Sep 29, 2014 Short Essay on 'Conserve Water, Save Life ' ( 200 Wordss ) Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam became the 11th President of India. Minister, the governor of Tamil Nadu and the main curates of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. Feb 1, 2014 Give me a life of at least 200 words on APJ Abdul Kalam. Kalam was born and raised inRameswaram, Tamil Nadu, studied natural philosophies at Oct 15, 2016 Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, a scientist and India 's 11th President, was born on 15 October 1931 in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, in a Tamil Muslim Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ( Tamil: அவுல் பகீர் 2015 ) normally referred to as A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, was a celebrated Indian aerospace applied scientist. Essaies on 100 Word Essay On Apj Abdul Kalam for pupils to cite for free. Para 1: consumer society, Hetherington p19, Staples p10 ( 200 words ) Para 2 Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam Tamil: born 15 October 1931 ) normally Aug 25, 2015 A. P. J. Abdul Kalam ( 1931–2015 ) . Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, a distinguished aerospace ( Tamil Nadu ) on 15 October 1931 to. Aug 18, 2013 Short Essay on 'Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam ' in Hindi | 'A.P.J. Abdul Kalam ' A.p.j abful kalam is really great individual, so one ca n't explicate it into words Midlands, Huntsville english essay 200 words. Apj Abdul Kalam Biography In Tamil Pdf. New York Texas stuff scientific discipline aid Oakland apa format commendation Jul 28, 2015 Former Indian President, APJ Abdul Kalam, passed off yesterday A scientist turned politician, Kalam was born and raised in Tamil Nadu. Oct 15, 2015 Today is the 84th birth day of remembrance of former President & high scientist APJ Abdul Kalam, besides known as the India 's 'Missile Man ' . Jul 28, 2015 Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam died at the age of 83 while giving a talk at Kalam can ne'er be filled but his inspiring words will everlastingly be with us Jul 27, 2015 He was president of India from 2002 to 2007. Kalam A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, in full Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ( born Island, southeasterly Tamil Nadu province, southeasterly India. Kalam · National Informatics Centre - Biography of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam · Official Site of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Apj Abdul Kalam 300 Words. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, Tamil: அவுல் பகீர் ஜைனுலாப்தீன் அப்துல் கலாம் ; born Jun 12, 2013 Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam www.abdulkalam.com. Page 1 of 17. Address and interaction with the pupils of. Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya. Indore. Feb 19, 2009 Interaction with Students of City Montessori School ( CMS ) , Lucknow, India Inspiring Young Minds by Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, Former President of

Short Essay – A.P.J Abdul Kalam

Abdul Pakir Jainulabudeen Abdul Kalam, this was the name of India’s 11th President ; who is known as APJ Abdul Kalam, in short. He was born to Mr. Jainulabdeen and Mrs. Ashiamma. Abdul Kalam’s male parent was a boat proprietor who ferried Hindu pilgrims from the celebrated Rameswaram temple in Tamil Nadu to Dhanushkodi. Mr. Jainulabdeen was besides an imaum in the local mosque, this is how he earned his life for his household. Mrs. Ashiamma was a homemaker. Dr. Abdul Kalam came from a modest household. He has even worked as a paperboy to back up his male parent. Abdul Kalam has four brothers and one sister. He was born on 15th October 1931 in the temple metropolis of Rameswaram. He was a devout Muslim. He offered supplications five times a twenty-four hours and fasted during the holy month of Ramadan. In his autobiography, he has mentioned that while he was immature his male parent who was the imaum, the temple priest and the priest from the nearby church used to sit together and discourse the common issues of the small town. This is how the feeling of secularism and equality was inculcated in him. Dr. Abdul Kalam’s instructors remember him as being non a really studious pupil, but really industrious. He graduated from Madras University with natural philosophies as his chief topic, he wanted to be a combatant pilot. He studied aerospace technology, subsequently on he completed his PhD and became a scientist. He was involved in India’s civilian infinite and military missile development programmes and hence he is known as, “The Missile Man of India.” Kalam was the Chief Scientific Adviser to the so Prime Minister Mr. Manmohan Singh ( 1992-1999 ) . He received the Bharat Ratna or the highest civilian award in 1997, the Padma Bhushan which is the 3rd highest civilian award in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan, the 2nd highest civilian award in 1990. Once he was asked whether he would wish to be known as a poet, a instructor, a missile adult male, a scientist, a President or a statesman. Dr. Kalam replied that he would wish to be known as a instructor! On 27th July 2015, it was as if God blessed him, he breathed his last while giving a talk in Shillong to the IIM pupils. Not merely India, but the whole universe was saddened by the decease of this great adult male. We can rightly state that Mr. Abdul Kalam is an prototype of simplicity and humility

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During the II universe war in 1941, it was a hard clip for our household at Rameswaram. I was a 10 twelvemonth old male child so. War had about reached our doors of Rameswaram since the cloud of war had already reached Colombo. Almost everything was a rareness from nutrient articles to anything. Ours was a big joint household. The size of our household was five boies and five girls and three of whom had households. I used to see in my house anytime three cradles. My grandmother and female parent were about pull offing this big contingent. The environment in the place alternated by felicity and sadness. I used to acquire up at four in the forenoon, take bath and went to my instructor Swamiyar for larning mathematics. He will non accept pupils if they had non taken bath. He was a alone mathematics instructor and he used to take merely five pupils for free tuition in a twelvemonth. My female parent used to acquire up before me, and gave bath to me and prepared me to travel for the tuition. I use to comeback at 5:30 when my male parent would be waiting for taking me to the Namaz and Koran Sharif larning in Arabic school. After that I used to travel to Rameswaram Road Railway station, three kilometres off to roll up newspaper. Madras Dhanushkodi Mail will go through through the station but will non halt, since it was war clip. The newspaper package will be thrown from the running train to the platform.

I used to roll up the paper and run around the Rameswaram town and be the first one to administer the newspapers in the town. My senior cousin brother was the agent who went off to Sri Lanka in hunt of better support. After distribution, I used to come place at 8 AM. My female parent will give me a simple breakfast with a particular quota compared to other kids because I was analyzing and working at the same time. After the school gets over in the eventide, once more I will travel around Rameswaran for aggregation of dues from clients. I still retrieve an incident which I would wish to portion with you. As a immature male child I was walking, running and analyzing all together. One twenty-four hours, when all my brothers and sisters were sitting and eating, my female parent went on giving me chapattis ( even though we are rice eaters merely, wheat was rationed ) . When I finished eating, my senior brother called me in private and scolded “Kalam do you cognize what was go oning? You went on eating Chappati, and mother went on giving you. She has given all her chappatis to you. It is hard clip. Be a responsible boy and do non do your female parent starve” . First clip I had a shaky esthesis and I could non command myself. I rushed to my female parent and hugged her. Even though I was analyzing in 5th category, I had a particular topographic point in my place because I was the last cat in the household. There used to be no electricity. Our house was lit by the kerosine lamp that excessively between 7 to 9 PM. My female parent specially gave me a little kerosine lamp so that I can analyze up to 11 PM. I still retrieve my female parent in a full Moon dark which has been portrayed with the rubric “mother” in my book “Wings of Fire” .

It was the twelvemonth 1936 ; I recall my induction of instruction at the age of 5 old ages in Rameswaram Panchayat simple school. I had a Teacher Muthu Iyer who took particular involvement on me chiefly because I performed really good in a category exercising. He was impressed and following twenty-four hours he came to my house to state my male parent that I was a really good pupil. My parents were happy and got my favorite Sweet from my female parent. Another of import event while I was in first category, which I can non bury. One twenty-four hours I did non turn up to my school. Teacher Muthu Iyer noticed my absence and same eventide he came to my male parent to inquire what the job was and why did I non travel to school and whether he can make anything to assist me. On that twenty-four hours, I was holding fever. Another of import thing, which he noticed was my manus authorship, was really hapless. He gave a three page composing exercising and told my male parent that he should guarantee that I do the exercising everyday on a regular basis. By these actions of my instructor Muthu Iyer, my male parent told me in ulterior old ages that instructor Muthu Iyer is non merely a good instructor to me in learning but he influenced and shaped me with good wonts and he was a baronial friend to my household. Even today I realize how my instructor loved instruction and took personal involvement to convey up his students. Now allow me speak about another instructor who taught me in my 5th category.

I was analyzing in 5th category at the age of 10 who gave a vision for my life. I had a instructor, Shri Siva Subramania Iyer. He was one of the really good instructors in our school. All of us loved to go to his category and hear him. One twenty-four hours he was learning about bird 's flight. He drew a diagram of a bird on the chalkboard picturing the wings, tail and the organic structure construction with the caput. He explained how the birds create the lift and fly. He besides explained to us how they change way while winging. About 25 proceedingss he gave the talk with assorted information such as lift, drag and how the birds fly in a formation of 10, 20 or 30 etc. At the terminal of the category, he wanted to cognize whether we understood how the birds fly. I said I did non understand how the birds fly. When I said this, he asked the other pupils whether they understood or non. Many pupils said that they did non understand. Our instructor was a existent instructor and really good instructor. He did non acquire upset by our response.

In position of this, my instructor said that he would take all of us to the sea shore. That flushing the whole category was in the sea shore. We enjoyed the howling sea moving ridges strike harding at the stones in the pleasant eventide. Birds were winging with sweet chirping voice. He showed the sea birds in formation in 10 to 20 Numberss, we have seen the fantastic formation of birds with a intent and we were all amazed. And we were merely looking at the formation. The instructor showed the birds and asked us to see when the birds fly, what it looked like. We saw the wings being flapped. He explained how the birds flapped the wings to bring forth the lift. He asked us to look at the tail part with the combination of rolling wing and writhing tail. We noticed closely and found that the birds in that status flew in the way they wanted. Then he asked us a inquiry, where the engine is and how it is powered. Bird is powered by its ain life and the motive what it wants. All these facets were explained to us within 15 proceedingss. We all understood the whole bird kineticss with practical illustration. How nice it was? Our instructor was a great instructor ; he could give as a theoretical lesson coupled with unrecorded practical illustration. This is existent learning. I am certain, many of the instructors in schools and colleges will follow this illustration.

For me, it was non simply an apprehension of how a bird flies. The bird 's flight entered into me and created a feeling on the coast of Rameswaram. From that twenty-four hours eventide, I thought that my hereafter survey has to be with mention to something to make with flight. At that clip, I did non recognize that I have to travel towards flight scientific discipline. I am stating this because my teacher’s instruction and the event that I witnessed inspired me to take to the end in life. Then one eventide after the categories, I asked the instructor, `` Sir, please state me, how to come on farther something to make with flight '' . He patiently explained to me that I should finish 8th category, and so travel to high school, and so I should travel to college that may take to instruction of flight. If I do all these things I might make something connected with flight scientific disciplines. This advice and the bird winging exercising given by my instructor truly gave me a end and a mission for my life. When I went to college, I took Physics. When I went to technology in Madras Institute of Technology, I took Aeronautical Engineering.

Now I would wish to discourse about my mathematics teacher Prof Thothatri Iyengar. As a immature scientific discipline pupil, I had an chance at St. Joseph’s College to witness a alone scene of divine looking personality walking through the college campus every forenoon, and learning Mathematicss to assorted grade classs. Students looked at the personality who was a symbol of our ain civilization, with awe and regard. When he walked, cognition radiated all about. The great personality was, Prof Thothatri Iyengar, our instructor. At that clip, ‘Calculus Srinivasan who was my mathematics instructor, used to speak about Prof Thothatri Iyengar with deep regard. They had an apprehension to hold an integrated category by Thothatri Iyengar for first twelvemonth B.Sc. ( Hons ) and first twelvemonth B.Sc. ( Physics ) . Therefore, I had the chance to go to his categories, peculiarly on modern algebra, statistics and complex variables. When we were in the B.Sc first twelvemonth, Calculus Srinivasan used to choose top 10 pupils to the Mathematics Club of St. Joseph’s, whom were addressed by Prof Thothatri Iyengar. I still retrieve, in 1952, he gave a masterly talk on ancient mathematicians and astronomers of India. In that talk, he introduced four great mathematicians and uranologists of India, which is still pealing in my ears. They are Aryabhata, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Brahmagupta, Bhaskaracharya. Let me discourse one.

Prof. Thothatri Iyengar explained, based on his analysis, that Aryabhata was both an uranologist and mathematician, born in 476 AD in Kusuma-pura ( now called Patna ) . He was known to stand for a sum-up of all Maths at that point of clip. Merely when he was merely 23 old ages old, he wrote his book ARYABHATIYAM in two parts. He covered of import countries like arithmetic, algebra ( first of all time subscriber ) , trigonometry and of class, uranology. He gave expression for the countries of a trigon and a circle and attempted to give the volumes of a sphere and a pyramid. He was the first to give value of pie. He discovered that the Earth takes about 365 yearss to revolve around the Sun. Prof. Thothatri Iyengar ever puts the pupil to take a pride in India’s part in uranology and mathematics and puts the pupils in front. This great instructor combined his cognition of scientific discipline with his deep penetration into many facets of our civilizational heritage. Prof. Thothatri Iyengar was an illustration for continuously constructing capacities among pupils and seting the pupils good in front in mathematical scientific disciplines. He besides injected great ideas in the heads of pupils and promoted nobility in thought and action. Now I would wish to discourse about the instructor who built the capacity of working together and development of incorporate system design even during technology pupil life.

While I was analyzing aeronautical technology in MIT, Chennai, ( 1954-57 ) during the 3rd twelvemonth of my class, I was assigned a undertaking to plan a low-level onslaught aircraft together with six other co-workers. I was given the duty of system design and system integrating by incorporating the squad members. Besides, I was responsible for aerodynamic and structural design of the undertaking. The other five of my squad took up the design of propulsion, control, counsel, avionics and instrumentation of the aircraft. My design teacher Prof. Srinivasan, the so Director of MIT, was our usher. He reviewed the undertaking and declared my work to be glooming and dissatisfactory. He didn’t impart an ear to my troubles in conveying together informations base from multiple interior decorators. I asked for a month’s clip to finish the undertaking, since I had to acquire the inputs from five of my co-workers without which I can non finish the system design. Prof. Srinivasan told me `` Look, immature adult male, today is Friday afternoon. I give you three yearss clip. If by Monday forenoon I don’t acquire the configuration design, your scholarship will be stopped. '' I had a jar in my life, as scholarship was my lifeline, without which I can non go on with my surveies. There was no other manner out but to complete the undertaking. My squad felt the demand for working together round the clock. We didn’t sleep that dark, working on the pulling board skipping our dinner. On Saturday, I took merely an hour’s interruption. On Sunday forenoon, I was close completion, when I felt someone’s presence in my research lab. It was Prof. Srinivasan analyzing my advancement. After looking at my work, he patted and hugged me dearly. He had words of grasp: `` I knew I was seting you under emphasis and inquiring you to run into a hard deadline. You have done great occupation in system design” .

Through this reappraisal mechanism Prof Srinivasan, truly injected the necessity of understanding the value of clip by each squad member and brought out the best from the system design squad. I realized that if something is at interest, the human heads get ignited and the on the job capacity gets enhanced manifold. That’s what precisely happened. This is one of the techniques of edifice endowment. The message is that immature in the organisation, whatever be their specialization, be trained to systems attack and undertakings, which will fix them for new merchandises, invention and set abouting higher organisational duties. Teacher has to be a manager like Prof. Srinivasan.

Born on 15th October 1931 at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu, Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, graduated in Science from St. Joseph 's College, Trichy in 1954 and specialized in Aeronautical Engineering from Madras Institute of Technology ( MIT ) in 1957. Dr. Kalam is a pioneer in fibre glass engineering and led a immature squad to originate this attempt in ISRO from design, development taking to production of composites rocket motor instances. Dr. Kalam made important part as Project Director to develop India 's first autochthonal Satellite Launch Vehicle ( SLV-3 ) which successfully injected the Rohini orbiter in the close Earth orbit in July 1980 and made India an sole member of Space Club.

He was responsible for the development of ISRO 's launch vehicle programme, peculiarly the PSLV configuration. After working for two decennaries in ISRO and get the hanging launch vehicle engineerings, Dr. Kalam took up the duty of developing Indigenous Guided Missiles at Defence Research and Development Organisation as the Chief Executive of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme ( IGMDP ) . He was responsible for the development and operationalisationof AGNI and PRITHVI Missiles and for constructing autochthonal capableness in critical engineerings through networking of multiple establishments. One of his important part was making Research Centre Imarat for advanced engineerings. He was the Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development from July 1992 to December 1999. During this period he led to the weaponisation of strategic missile systems and the Pokhran-II atomic trials in coaction with Department of Atomic Energy, which made India a atomic arm State. He besides gave thrust to autonomy in defense mechanism systems by come oning multiple development undertakings and mission undertakings such as Light Combat Aircraft.

As Chairman of Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council ( TIFAC ) and as an high scientist, he led the state with the aid of 500 experts to get at Technology Vision 2020 giving a route map for transforming India from the present developing position to a developed state. Dr. Kalam has served as the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India, in the rank of Cabinet Minister, from November 1999 to November 2001 and was responsible for germinating policies, schemes and missions for many development applications. Dr. Kalam was besides the Chairman, Ex-officio, of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet ( SAC-C ) and piloted India Millennium Mission 2020.

In the bio-medical country, Dr. Kalam along with his squad collaborated with medical specializers in the development of Kalam-Raju stent during 1994 - 1996. Kalam-Raju cardiac stent after making tests has been fitted to many destitute patients. This development has farther led to the creative activity of a production unit of state-of-the-art stents. Besides, he had initiated the usage of carbon-carbon and carbon-polymer stuffs for production of floor reaction orthosis callipers which has reduced the weight of the calliper to 1/10th of the original weight during 1995 & 1996. Over 50,000 kids have been fitted with these callipers.

In his literary chase Dr. Kalam authored a figure of books, such as `` Wingss of Fire '' , `` India 2020 - A Vision for the New Millennium '' , `` My journey '' and `` Ignited Minds - Unleashing the power within India '' , `` Indomitable Spirit '' , `` Steering Souls '' , `` Visualizing an Empowered State '' , `` Inspiring Ideas '' , `` Children Ask Kalam '' , `` You are born to blossom '' , `` Family and the State '' , `` Life Tree '' and `` The Aglow Sparks '' a aggregation of his verse forms. Many of them have become household names in India and among the Indian subjects abroad. These books have been translated into many Indian and foreign linguistic communications.

Dr. Kalam is one of the most distinguished scientists of India with the alone honor of having honorary doctor's degrees from 48 Universities and establishments from India and abroad. The Honorary Doctorates include, Nyenrode Business University, Netherlands ; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore ; Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg USA ; University of Wolverhampton, UK ; University of Kentucky, USA ; Oakland University, Michigan USA ; University of Waterloo, Canada ; University Sans Malaysia, Malaysia University of Sydney, Australia and the Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.

ராமேஸ்வரத்தில் பிறந்து ராக்கெட் விஞ்ஞானியாக உயர்ந்த டாக்டர் ஠ப்துல்கலாம்

சென்னை : முன்னாள் குடியரசுத்தலைவர் டாக்டர் ஏ.பி.ஜெ . ஠ப்துல் கலாம் ஠வர்களின் மறைவு நாட்டு மக்களையே சோகத்தில் ஆழ்த்தியுள்ளது . மாணவர்களின் கனவு நாயகன் , மக்களின் தலைவராக வாழ்ந்த மகத்தான மா மனிதரின் வாழ்க்கை வரலாற்றை இந்த தருணத்தில் ஠றிந்து கொள்வோம் .

1931 ஆம் ஆண்டு , ஠க்டோபர் மாதம் 15 ஆம் நாள் ஜைனுலாப்தீனுக்கும் , ஆஷியம்மாவுக்கும் மகனாக இந்தியாவின் தமிழ்நாடு மாநிலத்தில் , பாம்பன் தீவில் ஠மைந்துள்ள இராமநாதபுரம் மாவட்டத்தில் இருக்கும் ஒரு சிறிய நகராட்சியான இராமேஸ்வரத்தில் பிறந்தார் . இவர் ஒரு இஸ்லாமிய குடும்பத்தை சேர்ந்தவர் .

஠ப்துல் கலாம் , இராமேஸ்வரத்திலுள்ள தொடக்கப்பள்ளியில் தனது பள்ளிப்படிப்பை தொடங்கினார் . ஆனால் இவருடைய குடும்பம் ஏழ்மையில் இருந்ததால் , இளம் வயதிலே இவர் தன்னுடைய குடும்பத்திற்காக வேலைக்குச் சென்றார் . வறுமையான குடும்ப சூழ்நிலையால் பள்ளி நேரம் போக மற்ற நேரங்களில் இவர் செய்தித்தாள்கள் விநியோகம் செய்தார் . இவருடைய பள்ளிப்பருவத்தில் இவர் ஒரு சராசரி மாணவனாகவே வளர்ந்தார் .

தன்னுடைய பள்ளிப்படிப்பை முடித்தபிறகு , திருச்சிராப்பள்ளியிலுள்ள `` செயின்ட் ஜோசப் கல்லூரியில் '' இயற்பியல் பட்டப்படிப்பு பயின்றார் . 1954ஆம் ஆண்டு , இயற்பியலில் இளங்கலை பட்டம் பெற்றார் . ஆனால் , இயற்பியல் துறையில் ஆர்வம் இல்லை .

1960 ஆம் ஆண்டு வானூர்தி ஠பிவிருத்தி ஠மைத்தல் பிரிவில் ( DRDO ) விஞ்ஞானியாக தன்னுடைய ஆராய்ச்சி வாழ்க்கையைத் தொடங்கிய ஠ப்துல் கலாம் , ஒரு சிறிய ஹெலிகாப்டரை இந்திய ராணுவத்திற்காக வடிவமைத்து கொடுத்தார் . இந்திய விண்வெளி ஆராய்ச்சி கூடத்தில் ( ISRO ) தனது ஆராய்ச்சிப்பணிகளைத் தொடர்ந்த ஠வர் , துணைக்கோள் ஏவுகணைக் குழுவில் ( SLV ) செயற்கைக்கோள் ஏவுதலில் முக்கிய பங்காற்றினார் .

1980 ஆம் ஆண்டு SLV -III ராக்கெட்டைப் பயன்படுத்தி ரோகினி-I என்ற துணைக்கோளை வெற்றிகரமாக விண்ணில் ஏவச்செய்தார் . இது ஠வருக்கு மட்டுமல்லாமல் , இந்தியாவிற்கே ஒரு சாதனையாக ஠மைந்தது . இவரது சாதனையைப் பாராட்டி மத்திய ஠ரசு இவருக்கு 1981 ஆம் ஆண்டு இந்தியாவின் மிகப் பெரிய விருதான `` பத்ம பூஷன் '' விருது வழங்கி கௌரவித்தது .

இந்தியாவை ஠ணு ஆயுத வல்லரசாக மாற்றிய ஏ.பி.ஜே ஠ப்துல் கலாம் , இதுவரை ஐந்து ஏவுகணை திட்டங்களில் பணிபுரிந்துள்ளார் . 1963 ஆம் ஆண்டு முதல் 1983 ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை , இந்திய விண்வெளி ஆராய்ச்சி கூடத்தில் பல பணிகளை சிறப்பாக செய்த இவர் , 1998ஆம் ஆண்டு நடந்த பொக்ரான்-II ஠ணு ஆயுத சோதனையில் முக்கிய பங்காற்றினார் .

சென்னை ஠ண்ணா பல்கலைக்கழகத்தில் பேராசிரியராகவும் , மைசூர் பல்கலைக்கழத்தில் வருகைப் பேராசிரியராகவும் பணியாற்றினார்.஠னைவராலும் இந்திய ராணுவ ராக்கெட் படைப்பின் பிதாவாக போற்றப்படுகிறார் ஠ப்துல் கலாம் .

2002 ஆம் ஆண்டு நடந்த குடியரசுத் தலைவர் தேர்தலில் வெற்றி பெற்று , இந்தியாவின் 11 வது குடியரசு தலைவராக ஜூலை 25 ஆம் நாள் 2002 ல் பதவியேற்றார் . 2007 ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை குடியரசுத் தலைவராக இருந்த இவர் `` மக்களின் ஜனாதிபதி '' என்று ஠னைவராலும் ஠ன்போடு ஠ழைக்கப்பட்டார் . ஜனாதிபதி மாளிகையில் வாழ்ந்த போதும் மிக எளிமையான வாழ்வு வாழ்ந்தவர் .

நாட்டின் நலனையும் , மாணவர்களின் முன்னேற்றத்தையும் மட்டுமே கண்களாகப் பாவித்து ஠வற்றுக்காகவே தமது வாழ்நாளை ஠ர்ப்பணித்தவர் . சிறந்த எழுத்தாளராகவும் திகழ்ந்த கலாம் , ஠க்னிச் சிறகுகள் , இந்தியா 2020, திட்டம் இந்தியா உள்ளிட்ட நூல்களையும் எழுதியுள்ளார் .

2007 ஆம் ஆண்டு குடியரசுத் தேர்தலில் மீண்டும் போட்டியிட நினைத்த கலாம் , பிறகு பல காரணங்களால் ஠ந்த தேர்தலில் போட்டியிட போவதில்லை என முடிவு செய்து விலகினார் . ஆனாலும் கலாம் ஓய்வாக ஒரு நிமிடம் கூட ஠மரவில்லை . நாடுமுழுவதும் பயணம் செய்து மக்களையும் , மாணவர்களையும் சந்தித்து இந்தியா வல்லரசாக வேண்டும் என்று தனது ஆசையை மக்களின் மனதில் பதியவைத்தார் .

கடந்த 10 ஆண்டுகளில் , நாடு முழுவதும் ஒரு கோடிக்கும் மேல் மாணவர்களை சந்தித்து உரையாடியுள்ளார் . ஠றிவார்ந்த இளைஞர்கள் தங்களது நேரம் , ஠றிவு , ஆற்றலை பயன்படுத்தி , 2020க்குள் ஠னைத்து துறையிலும் நாட்டை முன்னேற்றப் பாதையில் கொண்டு செல்ல முயற்சிக்க வேண்டும் . மனதில் உறுதி இருந்தால் , நீங்கள் வெற்றி ஠டைவீர்கள் என்பதை மாணவர்களின் உள்ளங்களில் பதியவைத்தவர் ஠ப்துல் கலாம் .

2007 ஆம் ஆண்டு குடியரசுத் தேர்தலில் மீண்டும் போட்டியிட நினைத்த கலாம் , பிறகு பல காரணங்களால் ஠ந்த தேர்தலில் போட்டியிட போவதில்லை என முடிவு செய்து விலகினார் . ஆனாலும் கலாம் ஓய்வாக ஒரு நிமிடம் கூட ஠மரவில்லை . நாடுமுழுவதும் பயணம் செய்து மக்களையும் , மாணவர்களையும் சந்தித்து இந்தியா வல்லரசாக வேண்டும் என்று தனது ஆசையை மக்களின் மனதில் பதியவைத்தார் .

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam better known as A.P.J. Abdul Kalam i/ˈæbdʊl kəˈlɑːm/ ; ( 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015 ) was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. A calling scientist turned statesman, Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied natural philosophies and aerospace technology. He spent the following four decennaries as a scientist and scientific discipline decision maker, chiefly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation ( DRDO ) and Indian Space Research Organisation ( ISRO ) and was closely involved in India 's civilian infinite programme and military missile development attempts. He therefore came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle engineering. He besides played a polar organizational, proficient, and political function in India 's Pokhran-II atomic trials in 1998, the first since the original atomic trial by India in 1974.

Early life and instruction

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim household in the pilgrimage Centre of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, so in the Madras Presidency and now in the State of Tamil Nadu. His male parent Jainulabudeen was a boat proprietor and imaum of a local mosque ; his female parent Ashiamma was a homemaker. His male parent owned a ferry that took Hindu pilgrims back and Forth between Rameswaram and the now uninhabited Dhanushkodi. Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his household. His ascendants had been affluent bargainers and landowners, with legion belongingss and big piece of lands of land. Their concern had involved trading food markets between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, every bit good as ferrying pilgrims between the mainland and Pamban. As a consequence, the household acquired the rubric of `` Mara Kalam iyakkivar '' ( wooden boat steerers ) , which over the old ages became shortened to `` Marakier. '' With the gap of the Pamban Bridge to the mainland in 1914, nevertheless, the concerns failed and the household fortune and belongingss were lost over clip, apart from the hereditary place. By his early childhood, Kalam 's household had become hapless ; at an early age, he sold newspapers to supplement his household 's income.

In his school old ages, Kalam had mean classs but was described as a bright and industrious pupil who had a strong desire to larn. He spent hours on his surveies, particularly mathematics. After finishing his instruction at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Kalam went on to go to Saint Joseph 's College, Tiruchirappalli, so affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in natural philosophies in 1954. He moved to Madras in 1955 to analyze aerospace technology in Madras Institute of Technology. While Kalam was working on a senior category undertaking, the Dean was dissatisfied with his deficiency of advancement and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the undertaking was finished within the following three yearss. Kalam met the deadline, affecting the Dean, who subsequently said to him, `` I was seting you under emphasis and inquiring you to run into a hard deadline '' . He narrowly missed accomplishing his dream of going a combatant pilot, as he placed 9th in qualifiers, and merely eight places were available in the IAF.

Career as a scientist

After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation ( DRDO ) as a scientist. He started his calling by planing a little ground-effect machine, but remained unconvinced by his pick of a occupation at DRDO. Kalam was besides portion of the INCOSPAR commission working under Vikram Sarabhai, the celebrated infinite scientist. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation ( ISRO ) where he was the undertaking manager of India 's first Satellite Launch Vehicle ( SLV-III ) which successfully deployed the Rohini orbiter in near-earth orbit in July 1980 ; Kalam had foremost started work on an expandible rocket undertaking independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the authorities 's blessing and expanded the programme to include more applied scientists.

Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the state 's first atomic trial Smiling Buddha as the representative of TBRL, even though he had non participated in its development. In the 1970s, Kalam besides directed two undertakings, Project Devil and Project Valiant, which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the engineering of the successful SLV programme. Despite the disapproval of the Union Cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allotted secret financess for these aerospace undertakings through her discretional powers under Kalam 's directorship. Kalam played an built-in function converting the Union Cabinet to hide the true nature of these classified aerospace undertakings. His research and educational leading brought him great awards and prestigiousness in the 1980s, which prompted the authorities to originate an advanced missile programme under his directorship. Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam, metallurgical engineer and scientific advisor to the Defence Minister, worked on the suggestion by the so Defence Minister, R. Venkataraman on a proposal for coincident development of a frisson of missiles alternatively of taking planned missiles one after another. R Venkatraman was instrumental in acquiring the cabinet blessing for apportioning ₹388 crores for the mission, named Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme ( IGMDP ) and appointed Kalam as the main executive. Kalam played a major portion in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate scope ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the undertakings have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and clip overproductions.

Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-II atomic trials were conducted during this period in which he played an intensive political and technological function. Kalam served as the Chief Project Coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the proving stage. Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the state 's best known atomic scientist. However, the manager of the site trial, K Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a `` fizzle '' and criticisied Kalam for publishing an wrong study. Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the claims.

Presidency

The polling for the presidential election began on 15 July 2002 in Parliament and the province assemblies, with the media claiming that the election was a one-sided matter and Kalam 's triumph was a bygone decision ; the count was held on 18 July. Kalam became the 11th president of the Republic of India in an easy triumph, and moved into the Rashtrapati Bhavan after he was sworn in on 25 July. Kalam was the 3rd President of India to hold been honoured with a Bharat Ratna, India 's highest civilian honor, before going the President. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan ( 1954 ) and Dr Zakir Hussain ( 1963 ) were the earlier receivers of Bharat Ratna who subsequently became the President of India. He was besides the first scientist and the first bachelor to occupy Rashtrapati Bhawan.

During his term as president, he was dearly known as the People 's President, stating that subscribing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest determination he had taken during his term of office. Kalam was criticised for his inaction in make up one's minding the destiny of 20 out of the 21 mercy requests submitted to him during his term of office. Article 72 of the Constitution of India empowers the President of India to allow forgivenesss, and suspend or transpose the decease sentence of inmates on decease row. Kalam acted on merely one mercy plea in his five-year term of office as president, rejecting the plea of rapist Dhananjoy Chatterjee, who was subsequently hanged. Possibly the most noteworthy plea was from Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted of confederacy in the December 2001 onslaught on the Indian Parliament and was sentenced to decease by the Supreme Court of India in 2004. While the sentence was scheduled to be carried out on 20 October 2006, the pending action on his clemency supplication resulted in him staying on decease row. He besides took the controversial determination to enforce President 's Rule in Bihar in 2005.

Approaching the termination of the term of the 12th President Pratibha Patil on 24 July 2012, media studies in April claimed that Kalam was likely to be nominated for his 2nd term. After the studies, societal networking sites witnessed a figure of people back uping his campaigning. The BJP potentially backed his nomination, stating that the party would impart their support if the Trinamool Congress, Samajwadi Party and Indian National Congress proposed him for the 2012 presidential election. A month in front of the election, Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mamata Banerjee besides expressed their support for Kalam. Days afterwards, Mulayam Singh Yadav backed out, go forthing Mamata Banerjee as the solitary protagonist. On 18 June 2012, Kalam declined to contend the 2012 presidential canvass. He said of his determination non to make so:

Post-presidency

After go forthing office, Kalam became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, and the Indian Institute of Management Indore ; an honorary chap of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore ; chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram ; professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University ; and an adjunct at many other academic and research establishments across India. He taught information engineering at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, and engineering at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University.

Death

On 27 July 2015, Kalam travelled to Shillong to present a talk on `` Making a Livable Planet Earth '' at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong. While climbing a flight of stepss, he experienced some uncomfortableness, but was able to come in the auditorium after a brief remainder. At around 6:35 p.m. IST, merely five proceedingss into his talk, he collapsed. He was rushed to the nearby Bethany Hospital in a critical status ; upon reaching, he lacked a pulsation or any other marks of life. Despite being placed in the intensive attention unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac apprehension at 7:45 p.m IST. His last words, to his aide Srijan Pal Singh, were reportedly: `` Funny cat! Are you making good? ''

Following his decease, Kalam 's organic structure was airlifted in an Indian Air Force chopper from Shillong to Guwahati, from where it was flown to New Delhi on the forenoon of 28 July in an air force C-130J Hercules. The flight landed at Palam Air Base that afternoon and was received by the President, the Prime Minister, Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal, and the three service chiefs of the Indian Armed Forces, who laid garlands on Kalam 's organic structure. His organic structure was so placed on a gun carriage draped with the Indian flag and taken to his Delhi residence at 10 Rajaji Marg ; at that place, the populace and legion dignitaries paid court, including former prime curate Manmohan Singh, Congress President Sonia Gandhi and Vice-President Rahul Gandhi, and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav.

On the forenoon of 29 July, Kalam 's organic structure, wrapped in the Indian flag, was taken to Palam Air Base and flown to Madurai in an air force C-130J aircraft, geting at Madurai Airport that afternoon. His organic structure was received at the airdrome by the three service heads and national and province very important persons, including cabinet curates Manohar Parrikar, Venkaiah Naidu, Pon Radhakrishnan and the governors of Tamil Nadu and Meghalaya, K Rosaiah and V. Shanmuganathan. After a brief ceremonial, Kalam 's organic structure was flown by air force chopper to the town of Mandapam, from where it was taken in an army truck to his hometown of Rameswaram. Upon geting at Rameswaram, his organic structure was displayed in an unfastened country in forepart of the local coach station to let the public to pay their concluding respects until 8 p.m. that flushing.

Chemical reactions

India reacted to Kalam 's decease with an outpouring of grief ; legion testimonials were paid to the former President across the state and on societal media. The Government of India declared a weeklong province bereavement period as a grade of regard. President Pranab Mukherjee, Vice-President Hamid Ansari, Home Minister Rajnath Singh, and other leaders condoled the former President 's death. Prime Minister Narendra Modi said `` decease is a great loss to the scientific community. He took India to great highs. He showed the manner. '' Former Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, who had served as premier curate under Kalam, said, `` our state has lost a great human being who made phenomenal parts to the promotion of ego trust in defense mechanism engineerings. I worked really closely with Dr. Kalam as premier curate and I greatly benefited from his advice as president of our state. His life and work will be remembered for coevalss to come. '' ISRO president A. S. Kiran Kumar called his former co-worker `` a great personality and a gentleman '' , while former president G. Madhavan Nair described Kalam as `` a planetary leader '' for whom `` the downtrodden and hapless people were his precedence. He ever had a passion to convey what is in his head to the immature coevals '' , adding that his decease left a vacuum which none could make full.

South Asiatic leaders expressed commiserations and lauded the late solon. The Bhutanese authorities ordered the state 's flags to wing at half-mast to mourn Kalam 's decease, and illuminated 1000 butter lamps in court. Bhutanese Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay expressed deep sadness, stating Kalam `` was a leader greatly admired by all people, particularly the young person of India who have referred to him as the people 's President '' . Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina described Kalam as `` a rare combination of a great solon, acclaimed scientist, and a beginning of inspiration to the immature coevals of South Asia '' and termed his decease an `` irreparable loss to India and beyond '' . Bangladesh Nationalist Party main Khaleda Zia said `` as a atomic scientist, he engaged himself in the public assistance of the people '' . Ashraf Ghani, the President of Afghanistan, called Kalam `` an inspirational figure to 1000000s of people, '' observing that `` we have a batch to larn from his life '' . Nepali Prime Minister Sushil Koirala recalled Kalam 's scientific parts to India: `` Nepal has lost a good friend and I have lost an honoured and ideal personality. '' The President of Pakistan, Mamnoon Hussain, and Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif besides expressed their grief and commiserations on his decease. The President of Sri Lanka, Maithripala Sirisena, besides expressed his commiserations. `` Dr. Kalam was a adult male of steadfast strong belief and never-say-die spirit, and I saw him as an outstanding solon of the universe. His decease is an irreparable loss non merely to India but to the full universe. '' Maldivian President Abdulla Yameen and Vice-President Ahmed Adheeb condoled Kalam 's decease, with Yameen calling him as a close friend of the Maldives who would go on to be an inspiration to Indians and coevalss of South Asians. Former president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, who had made an official visit to India during Kalam 's presidential term, termed his death as a great loss to all of world. The Commander-in-Chief of the Myanmar Armed Forces, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, expressed commiserations on behalf of the Myanmar authorities. The Dalai Lama expressed his sadness and offered commiserations and supplications, naming Kalam 's decease `` an irreparable loss '' .

Kathleen Wynne, the Premier of Ontario, which Kalam had visited on legion occasions, expressed `` deepest commiserations. as a well-thought-of scientist, he played a critical function in the development of the Indian infinite programme. As a committed pedagogue, he inspired 1000000s of immature people to accomplish their really best. And as a devoted leader, he gained back up both at place and abroad, going known as 'the people 's President ' . I join our Indo–Canadian households, friends, and neighbors in mourning the passing of this well-thought-of leader. '' United States President Barack Obama extended `` deepest commiserations to the people of India on the passing of former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam '' , and highlighted his accomplishments as a scientist and as a solon, notably his function in beef uping US–India dealingss and increasing infinite co-operation between the two states. `` Appropriately named 'the People 's President ' , Dr. Kalam 's humility and dedication to public service served as an inspiration to 1000000s of Indians and admirers around the universe. '' Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed sincere commiserations and conveyed his understanding and support `` to the close and beloved 1s of the asleep leader, to the authorities, and full people of India '' . He remarked on Kalam 's outstanding `` personal part to the societal, economic, scientific, and proficient advancement of India and in guaranting its national security, '' adding that Dr Kalam would be remembered as a `` consistent exponent of closer friendly dealingss between our states, who has done a batch for cementing reciprocally good Russian–Indian cooperation. '' Other international leaders—including former Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, President of the United Arab Emirates Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and Vice-President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and amir of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum—also paid testimonial to Kalam. In a particular gesture, Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon visited the Permanent Mission of India to the UN and signed a commiseration book. `` The outpouring of heartache around the universe is a testament of the regard and inspiration he has garnered during and after his presidential term. The UN joins the people of India in directing our deepest commiserations for this great solon. May he rest in peace and eternity '' , Ban wrote in his message.

Islam

A proud and rehearsing Muslim, day-to-day namāz and fasting during Ramadan were built-in to Kalam 's life. His male parent, the imaum of a mosque in his hometown of Rameswaram, had purely instilled these Islamic imposts in his kids. His male parent had besides impressed upon the immature Kalam the value of interfaith regard and duologue. As Kalam recalled: `` Every eventide, my male parent A.P. Jainulabdeen, an imaum, Pakshi Lakshmana Sastry, the caput priest of the Ramanathaswamy Hindu temple, and a church priest used to sit with hot tea and discourse the issues refering the island. '' Such early exposure convinced Kalam that the replies to India 's countless issues lay in `` duologue and cooperation '' among the state 's spiritual, societal, and political leaders. Furthermore, since Kalam believed that `` regard for other religions '' was one of the cardinal cornerstones of Islam, he was fond of stating: `` For great work forces, faith is a manner of doing friends ; little people make faith a combat tool. ''

Syncretism

One constituent of Kalam 's widespread popularity among diverse groups in India, and an digesting facet of his bequest, is the syncretism he embodied in appreciating assorted elements of the many religious and cultural traditions of India. In add-on to his religion in the Koran and Islamic pattern, Kalam was well-versed in Hindu traditions ; he learnt Sanskrit, read the Bhagavad Gita and he was a vegetarian. Kalam besides enjoyed composing Tamil poesy, playing the veena ( a South Indian twine instrument ) , and listening to Carnatic devotional music every twenty-four hours. In 2002, in one of his early addresss to Parliament after going President, he reiterated his desire for a more united India, saying that `` uring the last one twelvemonth I met a figure of religious leaders of all faiths. I would wish to endeavor to work for conveying about unity of heads among the divergent traditions of our state '' . Describing Kalam as a unifier of diverse traditions, Congress leader Shashi Tharoor stated, `` Kalam was a complete Indian, an incarnation of the eclectic method of India 's heritage of diverseness '' . BJP leader L. K. Advani concurred that Kalam was `` the best example of the Idea of India, one who embodied the best of all the cultural and religious traditions that signify India 's integrity in huge diverseness. This was most strikingly apparent in the second-to-last book he published, cannily titled Transcendence: My Religious Experiences with Pramukh Swami.

Pramukh Swami as Guru

Kalam 's desire to run into religious leaders to assist make a more comfortable, religious, and unified India was what ab initio led him to run into Pramukh Swami, the Hindu guru of the BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya, who Kalam would come to see his ultimate religious instructor and guru. The first of eight meetings between Kalam and Pramukh Swami over a fourteen-year period took topographic point on 30 June 2001 in New Delhi, during which Kalam described being instantly drawn to Pramukh Swami 's simplicity and religious purity. Kalam stated that he was inspired by Pramukh Swami throughout their legion interactions. One such incident occurred the twenty-four hours following the terrorist onslaught on BAPS ' Akshardham, Gandhinagar composite in September 2002 ; Pramukh Swami prayed for, and sprinkled holy H2O upon, the sites of all of the asleep, including the terrorists, showing the position that all human life is sacred. Kalam recalled being moved by Pramukh Swami 's composure and compassion, mentioning this incident as one of his motives for composing Transcendence: My Religious Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji. Summarizing the consequence that Pramukh Swami had on him, Kalam stated that `` has so transformed me. He is the ultimate phase of the religious acclivity in my life. Pramukh Swamiji has put me in a God-synchronous orbit. No tactics are required any more, as I am placed in my concluding place in infinity. '' Following Kalam 's decease a month after his concluding book was released, co-author Arun Tiwari pointed to this transition as potentially prophetic and premonitory of Kalam 's decease.

Awards and honours

Kalam received 7 honorary doctor's degrees from 40 universities. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his function as a scientific adviser to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India 's highest civilian honor, the Bharat Ratna, for his part to the scientific research and modernisation of defense mechanism engineering in India. In 2013, he was the receiver of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society `` to acknowledge excellence in the direction and leading of a space-related undertaking '' .

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